Writing away at my desk, I reach my hand up to turn on a lamp, and down to open a drawer to take out a pen. Extending my arm forward, I brush my fingers against a small, strange figurine given to me by my sister as a good-luck charm, while reaching behind I can pat the black cat snuggling into my back. Right leads to the research notes for my article, left to my pile of ‘must-do’ items (bills and correspondence). Up, down, forward, back, right, left: I pilot myself in a personal cosmos of three-dimensional space, the axes of this world invisibly pressed upon me by the rectilinear structure of my office, defined, like most Western architecture, by three conjoining right angles.
Our architecture, our education and our dictionaries tell us that space is three-dimensional. The OED defines it as ‘a continuous area or expanse which is free, available or unoccupied … The dimensions of height, depth and width, within which all things exist and move.’ In the 18th century, Immanuel Kant argued that three-dimensional Euclidean space is an a priori necessity and, saturated as we are now in computer-generated imagery and video games, we are constantly subjected to representations of a seemingly axiomatic Cartesian grid. From the perspective of the 21st century, this seems almost self-evident.
Yet the notion that we inhabit a space with any mathematical structure is a radical innovation of Western culture, necessitating an overthrow of long-held beliefs about the nature of reality. Although the birth of modern science is often discussed as a transition to a mechanistic account of nature, arguably more important – and certainly more enduring – is the transformation it entrained in our conception of space as a geometrical construct.
Over the past century, the quest to describe the geometry of space has become a major project in theoretical physics, with experts from Albert Einstein onwards attempting to explain all the fundamental forces of nature as byproducts of the shape of space itself. While on the local level we are trained to think of space as having three dimensions, general relativity paints a picture of a four-dimensional universe, and string theory says it has 10 dimensions – or 11 if you take an extended version known as M-Theory. There are variations of the theory in 26 dimensions, and recently pure mathematicians have been electrified by a version describing spaces of 24 dimensions. But what are these ‘dimensions’? And what does it mean to talk about a 10-dimensional space of being?
In order to come to the modern mathematical mode of thinking about space, one first has to conceive of it as some kind of arena that matter might occupy. At the very least, ‘space’ has to be thought of as something extended. Obvious though this might seem to us, such an idea was anathema to Aristotle, whose concepts about the physical world dominated Western thinking in late antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Strictly speaking, Aristotelian physics didn’t include a theory of space, only a concept of place. Think of a cup sitting on a table. For Aristotle, the cup is surrounded by air, itself a substance. In his world picture, there is no such thing as empty space, there are only boundaries between one kind of substance, the cup, and another, the air. Or the table. For Aristotle, ‘space’ (if you want to call it that), was merely the infinitesimally thin boundary between the cup and what surrounds it. Without extension, space wasn’t something anything else could be in.
Centuries before Aristotle, Leucippus and Democritus had posited a theory of reality that invoked an inherently spatialised way of seeing – an ‘atomistic’ vision, whereby the material world is composed of minuscule particles (or atoms) moving through a void. But Aristotle rejected atomism, claiming that the very concept of a void was logically incoherent. By definition, he said, ‘nothing’ cannot be. Overcoming Aristotle’s objection to the void, and thus to the concept of extended space, would be a project of centuries. Not until Galileo and Descartes made extended space one of the cornerstones of modern physics in the early 17th century does this innovative vision come into its own. For both thinkers, as the American philosopher Edwin Burtt put it in 1924, ‘physical space was assumed to be identical with the realm of geometry’ – that is, the three-dimensional Euclidean geometry we are now taught in school.
Long before physicists embraced the Euclidean vision, painters had been pioneering a geometrical conception of space, and it is to them that we owe this remarkable leap in our conceptual framework. During the late Middle Ages, under a newly emerging influence deriving from Plato and Pythagoras, Aristotle’s prime intellectual rivals, a view began to percolate in Europe that God had created the world according to the laws of Euclidean geometry. Hence, if artists wished to portray it truly, they should emulate the Creator in their representational strategies. From the 14th to the 16th centuries, artists such as Giotto, Paolo Uccello and Piero della Francesca developed the techniques of what came to be known as perspective – a style originally termed ‘geometric figuring’. By consciously exploring geometric principles, these painters gradually learned how to construct images of objects in three-dimensional space. In the process, they reprogrammed European minds to see space in a Euclidean fashion.
The historian Samuel Edgerton recounts this remarkable segue into modern science in The Heritage of Giotto’s Geometry (1991), noting how the overthrow of Aristotelian thinking about space was achieved in part as a long, slow byproduct of people standing in front of perspectival paintings and feeling, viscerally, as if they were ‘looking through’ to three-dimensional worlds on the other side of the wall. What is so extraordinary here is that, while philosophers and proto-scientists were cautiously challenging Aristotelian precepts about space, artists cut a radical swathe through this intellectual territory by appealing to the senses. In a very literal fashion, perspectival representation was a form of virtual reality that, like today’s VR games, aimed to give viewers the illusion that they had been transported into geometrically coherent and psychologically convincing other worlds.
The structure of the ‘real’ went from a philosophical and theological question to a geometrical proposition
The illusionary Euclidean space of perspectival representation that gradually imprinted itself on European consciousness was embraced by Descartes and Galileo as the space of the real world. Worth adding here is that Galileo himself was trained in perspective. His ability to represent depth was a critical feature in his groundbreaking drawings of the Moon, which depicted mountains and valleys and implied that the Moon was as solidly material as the Earth.
By adopting the space of perspectival imagery, Galileo could show how objects such as cannonballs moved according to mathematical laws. The space itself was an abstraction – a featureless, inert, untouchable, un-sensable void, whose only knowable property was its Euclidean form. By the end of the 17th century, Isaac Newton had expanded this Galilean vision to encompass the universe at large, which now became a potentially infinite three-dimensional vacuum – a vast, quality-less, emptiness extending forever in all directions. The structure of the ‘real’ had thus been transformed from a philosophical and theological question into a geometrical proposition.
Where painters had used mathematical tools to develop new ways of making images, now, at the dawn of the ‘scientific revolution’, Descartes discovered a way to make images of mathematical relations in and of themselves. In the process, he formalised the concept of a dimension, and injected into our consciousness not only a new way of seeing the world but a new tool for doing science.
Almost everyone today recognises the fruits of Descartes’s genius in the image of the Cartesian plane – a rectangular grid marked with an x and y axis, and a coordinate system.
By definition, the Cartesian plane is a two-dimensional space because we need two coordinates to identify any point within it. Descartes discovered that with this framework he could link geometric shapes and equations. Thus, a circle with a radius of 1 can be described by the equation x2 + y2 =1.
A vast array of figures that we can draw on this plane can be described by equations, and such ‘analytic’ or ‘Cartesian’ geometry would soon become the basis for the calculus developed by Newton and G W Leibniz to further physicists’ analysis of motion. One way to understand calculus is as the study of curves; so, for instance, it enables us to formally define where a curve is steepest, or where it reaches a local maximum or minimum. When applied to the study of motion, calculus gives us a way to analyse and predict where, for instance, an object thrown into the air will reach a maximum height, or when a ball rolling down a curved slope will reach a specific speed. Since its invention, calculus has become a vital tool for almost every branch of science.
Considering the previous diagram, it’s easy to see how we can add a third axis. Thus with an x, y and z axis, we can describe the surface of a sphere – as in the skin of a beach ball. Here the equation (for a sphere with a radius of 1 ) becomes: x2 + y2 + z2 = 1
With three axes, we can describe forms in three-dimensional space. And again, every point is uniquely identified by three coordinates: it’s the necessary condition of three-ness that makes the space three-dimensional.
But why stop there? What if I add a fourth dimension? Let’s call it ‘p’. Now I can write an equation for something I claim is a sphere sitting in four-dimensional space: x2 + y2 + z2 + p2 = 1. I can’t draw this object for you, yet mathematically the addition of another dimension is a legitimate move. ‘Legitimate’ meaning there’s nothing logically inconsistent about doing so – there’s no reason I can’t.
A ‘dimension’ becomes a purely symbolic concept not necessarily linked to the material world at all
And I can keep on going, adding more dimensions. So I define a sphere in five-dimensional space with five coordinate axes (x, y, z, p, q) giving us the equation: x2 + y2 + z2+ p2 + q2 = 1. And one in six-dimensions: x2 + y2 + z2 + p2 + q2 + r2 = 1, and so on.
Although I might not be able to visualise higher-dimensional spheres, I can describe them symbolically, and one way of understanding the history of mathematics is as an unfolding realisation about what seemingly sensible things we can transcend. This is what Charles Dodgson, aka Lewis Carroll, was getting at when, in Through the Looking Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871), he had the White Queen assert her ability to believe ‘six impossible things before breakfast’.
Mathematically, I can describe a sphere in any number of dimensions I choose. All I have to do is keep adding new coordinate axes, what mathematicians call ‘degrees of freedom’. Conventionally, they are named x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6 et cetera. Just as any point on a Cartesian plane can be described by two (x, y) coordinates, so any point in a 17-dimensional space can be described by set of 17 coordinates (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6 … x15, x16, x17). Surfaces like the spheres above, in such multidimensional spaces, are generically known as manifolds.
From the perspective of mathematics, a ‘dimension’ is nothing more than another coordinate axis (another degree of freedom), which ultimately becomes a purely symbolic concept not necessarily linked at all to the material world. In the 1860s, the pioneering logician Augustus De Morgan, whose work influenced Lewis Carroll, summed up the increasingly abstract view of this field by noting that mathematics is purely ‘the science of symbols’, and as such doesn’t have to relate to anything other than itself. Mathematics, in a sense, is logic let loose in the field of the imagination.
Unlike mathematicians, who are at liberty to play in the field of ideas, physics is bound to nature, and at least in principle, is allied with material things. Yet all this raises a liberating possibility, for if mathematics allows for more than three dimensions, and we think mathematics is useful for describing the world, how do we know that physical space is limited to three? Although Galileo, Newton and Kant had taken length, breadth and height to be axiomatic, might there not be more dimensions to our world?
Again, the idea of a universe with more than three dimensions was injected into public consciousness through an artistic medium, in this case literary speculation, most famously in the mathematician Edwin A Abbott’s Flatland (1884). This enchanting social satire tells the story of a humble Square living on a plane, who is one day visited by a three-dimensional being, Lord Sphere, who propels him into the magnificent world of Solids. In this volumetric paradise, Square beholds a three-dimensional version of himself, the Cube, and begins to dream of pushing on to a fourth, fifth and sixth dimension. Why not a hypercube? And a hyper-hypercube, he wonders?
Sadly, back in Flatland, Square is deemed a lunatic, and locked in an insane asylum. One of the virtues of the story, unlike some of the more saccharine animations and adaptations it has inspired, is its recognition of the dangers entailed in flaunting social convention. While Square is arguing for other dimensions of space, he is also making a case for other dimensions of being – he’s a mathematical queer.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a raft of authors (H G Wells, the mathematician and sci-fi writer Charles Hinton, who coined the word ‘tesseract’ for the 4D cube), artists (Salvador Dalí) and mystical thinkers (P D Ouspensky), explored ideas about the fourth dimension and what it might mean for humans to encounter it.
Then in 1905, an unknown physicist named Albert Einstein published a paper describing the real world as a four-dimensional setting. In his ‘special theory of relativity’, time was added to the three classical dimensions of space. In the mathematical formalism of relativity, all four dimensions are bound together, and the term spacetime entered our lexicon. This assemblage was by no means arbitrary. Einstein found that, by going down this path, a powerful mathematical apparatus came into being that transcended Newton’s physics and enabled him to predict the behaviour of electrically charged particles. Only in a 4D model of the world can electromagnetism be fully and accurately described.
Relativity was a great deal more than another literary game, especially once Einstein extended it from the ‘special’ to the ‘general’ theory. Now multidimensional space became imbued with deep physical meaning.
In Newton’s world picture, matter moves through space in time under the influence of natural forces, particularly gravity. Space, time, matter and force are distinct categories of reality. With special relativity, Einstein demonstrated that space and time were unified, thus reducing the fundamental physical categories from four to three: spacetime, matter and force. General relativity takes a further step by enfolding the force of gravity into the structure of spacetime itself. Seen from a 4D perspective, gravity is just an artifact of the shape of space.
To comprehend this remarkable situation, let’s imagine for the moment its two-dimensional analogue. Think of a trampoline, and imagine we draw on its surface a Cartesian grid. Now put a bowling ball onto the grid. Around it, the surface will stretch and warp so some points become further away from each other. We’ve disturbed the inherent measure of distance within the space, making it uneven. General relativity says that this warping is what a heavy object, such as the Sun, does to spacetime, and the aberration from Cartesian perfection of the space itself gives rise to the phenomenon we experience as gravity.
Whereas in Newton’s physics, gravity comes out of nowhere, in Einstein’s it arises naturally from the inherent geometry of a four-dimensional manifold; in places where the manifold stretches most, or deviates most from Cartesian regularity, gravity feels stronger. This is sometimes referred to as ‘rubber-sheet physics’. Here, the vast cosmic force holding planets in orbit around stars, and stars in orbit around galaxies, is nothing more than a side-effect of warped space. Gravity is literally geometry in action.
If moving into four dimensions helps to explain gravity, then might thinking in five dimensions have any scientific advantage? Why not give it a go? a young Polish mathematician named Theodor Kaluza asked in 1919, thinking that if Einstein had absorbed gravity into spacetime, then perhaps a further dimension might similarly account for the force of electromagnetism as an artifact of spacetime’s geometry. So Kaluza added another dimension to Einstein’s equations, and to his delight found that in five dimensions both forces fell out nicely as artifacts of the geometric model.
You’re an ant running on a long, thin hose, without ever being aware of the tiny circle-dimension underfoot
The mathematics fit like magic, but the problem in this case was that the additional dimension didn’t seem to correlate with any particular physical quality. In general relativity, the fourth dimension was time; in Kaluza’s theory, it wasn’t anything you could point to, see, or feel: it was just there in the mathematics. Even Einstein balked at such an ethereal innovation. What is it? he asked. Where is it?
In 1926, the Swedish physicist Oskar Klein answered this question in a way that reads like something straight out of Wonderland. Imagine, he said, you are an ant living on a long, very thin length of hose. You could run along the hose backward and forward without ever being aware of the tiny circle-dimension under your feet. Only your ant-physicists with their powerful ant-microscopes can see this tiny dimension. According to Klein, every point in our four-dimensional spacetime has a little extra circle of space like this that’s too tiny for us to see. Since it is many orders of magnitude smaller than an atom, it’s no wonder we’ve missed it so far. Only physicists with super-powerful particle accelerators can hope to see down to such a minuscule scale.
Once physicists got over their initial shock, they became enchanted by Klein’s idea, and during the 1940s the theory was elaborated in great mathematical detail and set into a quantum context. Unfortunately, the infinitesimal scale of the new dimension made it impossible to imagine how it could be experimentally verified. Klein calculated that the diameter of the tiny circle was just 10-30 cm. By comparison, the diameter of a hydrogen atom is 10-8 cm, so we’re talking about something more than 20 orders of magnitude smaller than the smallest atom. Even today, we’re nowhere close to being able to see such a minute scale. And so the idea faded out of fashion.
Kaluza, however, was not a man easily deterred. He believed in his fifth dimension, and he believed in the power of mathematical theory, so he decided to conduct an experiment of his own. He settled on the subject of swimming. Kaluza could not swim, so he read all he could about the theory of swimming, and when he felt he’d absorbed aquatic exercise in principle, he escorted his family to the seaside and hurled himself into the waves, where lo and behold he could swim. In Kaluza’s mind, the swimming experiment upheld the validity of theory and, though he did not live to see the triumph of his beloved fifth dimension, in the 1960s string theorists resurrected the idea of higher-dimensional space.
By the 1960s, physicists had discovered two additional forces of nature, both operating at the subatomic scale. Called the weak nuclear force and the strongnuclear force, they are responsible for some types of radioactivity and for holding quarks together to form the protons and neutrons that make up atomic nuclei. In the late 1960s, as physicists began to explore the new subject of string theory (which posits that particles are like minuscule rubber bands vibrating in space), Kaluza’s and Klein’s ideas bubbled back into awareness, and theorists gradually began to wonder if the two subatomic forces could also be described in terms of spacetime geometry.
It turns out that in order to encompass both of these two forces, we have to add another five dimensions to our mathematical description. There’s no a priori reason it should be five; and, again, none of these additional dimensions relates directly to our sensory experience. They are just there in the mathematics. So this gets us to the 10 dimensions of string theory. Here there are the four large-scale dimensions of spacetime (described by general relativity), plus an extra six ‘compact’ dimensions (one for electromagnetism and five for the nuclear forces), all curled up in some fiendishly complex, scrunched-up, geometric structure.
A great deal of effort is being expended by physicists and mathematicians to understand all the possible shapes that this miniature space might take, and which, if any, of the many alternatives is realised in the real world. Technically, these forms are known as Calabi-Yau manifolds, and they can exist in any even number of higher dimensions. Exotic, elaborate creatures, these extraordinary forms constitute an abstract taxonomy in multidimensional space; a 2D slice through them (about the best we can do in visualising what they look like) brings to mind the crystalline structures of viruses; they almost look alive.
There are many versions of string-theory equations describing 10-dimensional space, but in the 1990s the mathematician Edward Witten, at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (Einstein’s old haunt), showed that things could be somewhat simplified if we took an 11-dimensional perspective. He called his new theory M-Theory, and enigmatically declined to say what the ‘M’ stood for. Usually it is said to be ‘membrane’, but ‘matrix’, ‘master’, ‘mystery’ and ‘monster’ have also been proposed.
Ours might be just one of many co-existing universes, each a separate 4D bubble in a wider arena of 5D space
So far, we have no evidence for any of these additional dimensions – we are still in the land of swimming physicists dreaming of a miniature landscape we cannot yet access – but string theory has turned out to have powerful implications for mathematics itself. Recently, developments in a version of the theory that has 24 dimensions has shown unexpected interconnections between several major branches of mathematics, which means that, even if string theory doesn’t pan out in physics, it will have proven a richly rewarding source of purely theoretical insight. In mathematics, 24-dimensional space is rather special – magical things happen there, such as the ability to pack spheres together in a particularly elegant way – though it’s unlikely that the real world has 24 dimensions. For the world we love and live in, most string theorists believe that 10 or 11 dimensions will prove sufficient.
There is one final development in string theory that warrants attention. In 1999, Lisa Randall (the first woman to get tenure at Harvard as a theoretical physicist) and Raman Sundrum (an Indian-American particle theorist) proposed that there might be an additional dimension on the cosmological scale, the scale described by general relativity. According to their ‘brane’ theory – ‘brane’ being short for ‘membrane’ – what we normally call our Universe might be embedded in a vastly bigger five-dimensional space, a kind of super-universe. Within this super-space, ours might be just one of a whole array of co-existing universes, each a separate 4D bubble within a wider arena of 5D space.
It is hard to know if we’ll ever be able to confirm Randall and Sundrum’s theory. However analogies have been drawn between this idea and the dawn of modern astronomy. Europeans 500 years ago found it impossible to imagine other physical ‘worlds’ beyond our own, yet now we know that the Universe is populated by billions of other planets orbiting around billions of other stars. Who knows, one day our descendants could find evidence for billions of other universes, each with their own unique spacetime equations.
The project of understanding the geometrical structure of space is one of the signature achievements of science, but it might be that physicists have reached the end of this road. For it turns out that, in a sense, Aristotle was right – there are indeed logical problems with the notion of extended space. For all the extraordinary successes of relativity, we know that its description of space cannot be the final one because at the quantum level it breaks down. For the past half-century, physicists have been trying without success to unite their understanding of space at the cosmological scale with what they observe at the quantum scale, and increasingly it seems that such a synthesis could require radical new physics.
After Einstein developed general relativity, he spent much of the rest of his life trying to ‘build all of the laws of nature out of the dynamics of space and time, reducing physics to pure geometry’, as Robbert Dijkgraaf, director of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, put it recently. ‘For [Einstein], space-time was the natural “ground-level” in the infinite hierarchy of scientific objects.’ Like Newton’s world picture, Einstein’s makes space the primary grounding of being, the arena in which all things happen. Yet at very tiny scales, where quantum properties dominate, the laws of physics reveal that space, as we are used to thinking about it, might not exist.
A view is emerging among some theoretical physicists that space might in fact be an emergent phenomenon created by something more fundamental, in much the same way that temperature emerges as a macroscopic property resulting from the motion of molecules. As Dijkgraaf put it: ‘The present point of view thinks of space-time not as a starting point, but as an end point, as a natural structure that emerges out of the complexity of quantum information.’
A leading proponent of new ways of thinking about space is the cosmologist Sean Carroll at Caltech, who recently said that classical space isn’t ‘a fundamental part of reality’s architecture’, and argued that we are wrong to assign such special status to its four or 10 or 11 dimensions. Where Dijkgraaf makes an analogy with temperature, Carroll invites us to consider ‘wetness’, an emergent phenomenon of lots of water molecules coming together. No individual water molecule is wet, only when you get a bunch of them together does wetness come into being as a quality. So, he says, space emerges from more basic things at the quantum level.
Carroll writes that, from a quantum perspective, the Universe ‘evolves in a mathematical realm with more than 10(10^100) dimensions’ – that’s 10 followed by a googol of zeroes, or 10,000 trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion zeroes. It’s hard to conceive of this almost impossibly vast number, which dwarfs into insignificance the number of particles in the known Universe. Yet every one of them is a separate dimension in a mathematical space described by quantum equations; every one a new ‘degree of freedom’ that the Universe has at its disposal.
Even Descartes might have been stunned by where his vision has taken us, and what dazzling complexity has come to be contained in the simple word ‘dimension’.
This Essay was made possible through the support of a grant to Aeon magazine from Templeton Religion Trust. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Templeton Religion Trust.
Funders to Aeon Magazine are not involved in editorial decision-making, including commissioning or content approval.
WEBS APP SERV N
NoSpecatt / Xsystem
WEBS APP SERV N
More support for:WebSphere Application Server
Software version: 900
Reference #: PH11684
Modified date: 19 June 2019
Where is my suit · DPOOL 0 Aman Jr and Crazy Cataloguing Ant man and the handshake cabin The Triangle Dimension · TRIDIM Paper Craft.
Hey Guys Its :crystal_ball: Mystic Enderman :crystal_ball: and welcone to my blog! Today, Im going to have a review of the Orespawn Mod. Without a further a do, lets begin!
:books: ~• A Note for Readers •~ :books:
• This will be a Series of Reviews since the Orespawn is a Pretty Big Mod and cramping all of the information about the said Mod will make the blog too long to read and to review thoroughly.
~• Short Info •~
The Orespawn Mod is a Mod that brings a lot of changes to your typical Normal / Vanilla Minecraft Game. It brings A lot of New Bosses, Mobs, Dungeons, Dimensions, Weapons, Armor, Resources, and Other Items that will aid you throughtout your game.
:cyclone: ~• Dimensions •~ :cyclone:
The Orespawn mod gives access to several dimensions. Here are the said Dimensions and a quick description of them.
:evergreen_tree: The Utopia Dimension :evergreen_tree:
The Utopia Dimension is a Dimension in the Orespawn Mod that can be accessed by right-clicking a Brown Ant. The dimension is free from Hostile Mobs. Although there are a few, they do not spawn above ground but underground. The land of the Utopia Dimensions is filled with Sky Trees which is self-explanatory, Trees that reach the Sky. Some of the said Trees have Precious Block at top of them like Emeralds or Diamonds.
There is also a Golden Ore Tree which is a Tree that is bountiful of minerals like Gold, Emeralds, Diamonds, Amethysts, Redstone, Lapiz Lazulis, Titaniums, and Uraniums. However, the tree is extremely rare so finding it will be worth it.
There are also Apple Bearing Trees scattered around the land that obviously drop or bear Apples.
The Boss of the Dimension is the King which is a White / Gold Three headed Dragon that I will be giving an in depth review in future blogs.
:gem: The Mining Dimension :gem:
The Mining Dimension is a Dimension in the Orespawn Mod that can be accessed by right-clicking a Red Ant. Bring your Pickaxes because the Underground Caves of this dimension is packed or filled with tons and tons of Minerals. The land is filled with Dinosaurs that are both Hostile and Friendly. Some of these said Dinosaurs can be Tamed and be Pets.
Even though the dimension is bountiful with Minerals and Dinosaurs, there are also Terrifying Hostile Mobs and Bosses that come out at Night
There are also several Dungeons scattered around the Mining Dimension that can be raided and looted at any time.
:house: Village Dimension :house:
The Village Dimension is a dimension from the Orespawn Mod that can be accessed by right-clicking a Rainbow Ant. As obvious, the Village Dimensions is packed with Villages that you can raid or pillage to your heart's content.
Although, it is best to leave before the Sun sets because when it does, Several Massive Destructive Mobs appear. These said Mobs includes Mobzilla, Jeffery, and Robots.
:skull: Danger Dimension :skull:
The Danger Dimension is a dimension again from the Orespawn Mod that can be accessed by right-clicking an Unstable Ant. The Danger Dimensions is filled with Floating Islands, Corrupted Trees, Dungeons, and Stinkies which are Tiny Dragons that well.... Fart and Change at the same time.
Before going to the Danger Dimension, its best to prepare a water bucket in case of emergencies and equip yourself with the best Armor and Weaponry you could access.
:crystal_ball: The Crystal Dimension :crystal_ball:
The Crystal Dimension is the Most Unique out of all the Dimensions from the Orespawn Mod. Please note that before you enter this dimension, empty out your inventory because if you dont, then all the items in your inventory will be deleted. Although, there are some ways that you could bring your stuff into the dimension but if you dont know any of these said ways, then you will probably spend some time in this dimension mining for resources. Right-Clicking Termites are the only way or access to getting in this dimension.
The dimensions is completely made out of Crystals ranging from Crystal Grass, Stone, Trees, Grass, and Mobs. The Boss of this dimension is a Vortex.
There are dungeons in the Crystal Dimension which are both underground and above ground. Here there are loot you could use in order to defeat the said boss of the Crystal Dimension, The Vortex.
:anger: The Chaos Dimension :anger:
The Chaos Dimension is named " Chaos Dimension " for a reason... Well because it could get Chaotic at times. Almost all of the Hostile Mobs can be seen at the said dimension with the exception of Water-Based Mobs. The way to get in the Chaos Dimension is by right-clicking a Butterfly.
The breathtaking view of the dimension in the day can be terrifying and dangerous at night. The Mobs range from Regular Mobs to Deadly Bosses.
There's not much to do and see in the dimension besides Exploring and Killing Mobs.
So those are the dimensions in the Orespawn Mod and the first part of the Orespawn Mod Review Series. Hope you guys like it and if you did, then press that like button ( :heart: ) right up there.
~ :crystal_ball: Mystic Enderman :crystal_ball:
|It has been suggested that this page be moved to ftb:Mods/Mo' Creatures. Do not move the page until a consensus is reached.Discuss|
Reason: mod pages migration
When moving, be sure to use the appropriate tool instead of simply copying and pasting the page's contents, to preserve edit history.
Mo' Creatures is a mod created by DrZhark on November 17, 2010. It adds 58 new animal and monster mobs to the game, as well as the ability to tame and ride many of them.
Mo' Creatures will only work with texture packs that either use MCPatcher or if there are skins already, but sphax will work even if there is no patch for this mod.
|Horses||Horses do not attack you, but they can still hurt you. They will buck you off if you ride it when they aren't tamed. When killed, they drop leather. They can be bred and tamed (check breeding/taming details). They will not despawn when tamed, and have health, which they can recover by being fed hay bales. There are over 36 types all up and can be bred and given essences of light, undead, fire and darkness to change them into various mystical creatures e.g. (bat horse, unicorn, nightmare, pegasus, dark pegasus and Fairy Horse).|
|Birds||There are 6 different types of birds: Dove, Crow, Blue Gross Beak, Cardinal, Canary and Parrot, each one with a different sound. They will eat seeds if you drop them on the ground in their sight. Right-clicking a tamed bird will place it on your head. Once a bird is placed on your head, you will not take fall damage. Instead you will "glide" to the ground slowly.|
|Insects||Includes butterflies, moths, flies, bees, fireflies, dragonflies, crickets, maggots, ants, cockroaches, and crickets. These mobs cannot be tamed.|
|Turkeys||Passive mobs that drop raw turkey when killed, which can be cooked. There are male and female variants. Can be tamed with melon seeds.|
|Ostriches||Ostriches spawn in plains and desert biomes. You can find male, females and chicks. The males will fight back if attacked. They drop raw ostrich when killed and are tamed by spawning them in an egg. There are three types of ostriches: black (male), brown (female), and albino. If you give ostriches essences the ostrich will transform into a new species. Plus, they can be given helmets and flags with any colored wool.|
|Snails||They're slow and they hide in their shells, except when they don't have a shell. Snails drop slime balls.|
|Bunnies||Bunnies only jump around aimlessly. They are brown, white, gray, black, or light brown with a little pink nose. Right clicking on them will place them on your head. Right clicking them once they are on your head will make them jump off of you. Having a rabbit on your head while riding a horse will considerably speed it up. Rabbits also breed uncontrollably when near one another and can cause lag when kept together too long.|
|Dolphins||Dolphins are tameable and rideable and will not attack you unless you attack them. They drop raw fish when killed. Tamed with raw fish.|
|Elephants and Mammoths||Elephants spawn on Deserts, Jungles, Plains and Forests. Mammoths spawn in cold biomes. Elephants drop Hide. An elephant calf can be tamed by giving it 10 Sugar lumps or 5 cakes. (Most players give them 10 sugar lumps as cake takes quite a lot to craft!) Tamed elephants are healed with baked potatoes, bread or haystacks. A harness can be put on tamed adult elephants to make them rideable and attach extra things. They can also be given armor.|
|Fish||including Lil' fish, small fish and medium fish |
Lil Fish (fishies)
They come in ten different colors (excluding piranhas). They drop raw fish and fish eggs. They can be caught by right clicking on them with a full fishbowl and with a fish net. It's always nice to have a bowl of fish in your minecraft house!
Small fish look very much like lil fish, but are bigger and cannot be put in fishbowls. However, they can be tamed.
Medium fish are much larger than small and lil' fish, and are tamed in the same way as small fish.
|Kitties||Cats can be tamed and become the player's pets. Litter boxes,Cat beds,and cat food can be crafted for them. When provoked, they will scratch the player. They need to have a litterbox and a bed or they will try to kill you. Feed it cat food. They need some time outside or they will get mad.|
|Komodo Dragons||Komodo dragons spawn on swamps and plains. They attack small animals and players. Komodo dragons poison their prey. They drop reptile hide and the bigger Komodo Dragons have a 25% chance of dropping eggs. An egg can be hatched if placed near a torch and the resulting baby Komodo Dragon will be tamed. Tamed Komodo dragon can be healed by giving it raw rat or raw turkey. A saddle can be put on a Tamed adult Komodo dragon so it can be ridden. They drop Reptile Hide.|
|Mice||Mice scurry about squeaking and spawn during the day. They drop seeds when killed. They can be quite annoying to have scurrying around your house! If you right click them they will ride on your hand. They can sometimes be mistaken as rats.....|
|Deer||Deer run away from anything bigger than a chicken and they drop leather and raw pork chops when killed. They usually spawn on plains, but can be found elsewhere.|
|Ducks||Ducks act just like chickens and are retextured. They drop feathers when killed and/or raw chicken. They follow and breed to bread rather than seeds.|
|Goats||Goats are really easy to tame, just drop any edible(food) item nearby. Once tamed, you can name them. You can also change the name by right clicking on the goat while holding a medallion or book. |
Tamed and wild goats will follow you if you are carrying any edible items in your hand. You can use a rope on tamed goat to make them follow you You can milk female goats. Female goats don't have a gotie and have shorter horns. Don't try to milk a male goat. It won't like it! Male goats will fight back if provoked, and will throw you backwards with its horns. They will also fight between themselves. They won't fight to death and will calm down after a short while. Goats are quite omnivorous. They will eat ANY item or floating blocks that are nearby. Even diamonds. If you die next to a goat it will have a feast with your dropped items. You have been warned...
|Turtles||Turtles are slow and small mobs that spawn naturally in swamp biomes. Wild turtles draw their head into their shells if you come near. Wild turtles can be flipped over by right-clicking; they are more vulnerable to attack this way. Turtles drop between 1 and 2 chests and/or 0 - 2 turtle meat when killed. To tame drop sugar cane near them. If you named them after the ninja turtles you'll get a surprise!(They look like the teenage mutant ninja turtle you named it after) *Spoilers*|
|Manta Rays||Manta rays are large, but peaceful creatures that swim in the water. They can be ridden by right-clicking on them. Can be tamed with fish nets. |
Also there are rare pink manta rays.
|Bears||They only attack the player if you attack them. They drop fur or fish when killed. Polar Bears will attack on sight, Grizzly and Black Bears are neutral. This happens in nature as well. Pandas can be tamed with sugar cane.|
|Crocodiles||Crocodiles will roam around near beaches in the swamp biomes, sometimes they will remain static. |
Don't be fooled by a 'sleeping' crocodile, they are ready to attack and their speed can surprise you. They are very aggressive and fast in the water. Crocodiles snatch prey with their jaws, they will try to carry their prey to the water, where they will perform a death roll. If a crocodile has caught you, you can try to get free by attacking it, but not all the hits will land. It's not that easy to escape crocodile's jaws, just like in nature. Crocodiles drop hides that can be used to craft 'Croc' armor, equivalent to ironarmor.
|Snakes||There are eight different kinds of snakes including a couple of shy snakes that will run away from the player and venomous snakes like corals, cobras, and rattle snakes. There are also aggressive pythons, which are the biggest snake in the mod. |
Different kind of snakes spawn based on the biomes. Rattlesnakes only spawn in deserts, while pythons spawn in swamps and jungles
Snakes mind their own business, if you get too close they will alert and hiss, giving you time to run away. If you don't they will attack you.
A player carrying a bird or mouse will attract the nearby snakes. They hunt down small creatures
When snakes are killed, they drop eggs which can be hatched in the water or next to a torch and will not attack you once hatched. The hatchlings can also be named and you can put them on your shoulders
|Boars||Similar to pigs. Boars are brown and will attack the player if harmed or if the player gets too close. Boars will only attack other animals and the player when they are hungry. They deal around 2 hearts of damage. They drop hide or raw pork when killed.|
|Wild Wolves||These will not attack the player unless they are harmed or if it is night, however they will attack Chickens and Ducks during the day. They drop leather when killed. Note that these do not replace the wolves from vanilla Minecraft. They cannot be tamed, but if you hold a rabbit they will follow you to try to kill it.|
|Foxes||Foxes will only attack mobs that are smaller than them. They will only attack you if you attack them. Drops 1 piece of leather when killed. Foxes can be tamed with raw turkey meat. Heal them with raw rat meat. Arctic Foxes can be found in Snow Biomes and tamed the same way. WARNING! Foxes and Dogs will attack each other so do not keep them close!|
|Rats||During the day, rats are neutral towards the player, but at night or in caves they are aggressive and will attack on sight. Rats drop raw rat when killed, And raw rat is used to feed many animals, it can also be turned into a burger.|
|Sting rays||Sting rays will poison you if you get too close, but will not actively attack you. They don't drop anything. Can be tamed with a fish net.|
|Jellyfish||Jellyfish will spawn on most waters. They are translucent and propel with pulsating movements. They are also luminescent at night. You can get poisoned if you get too close. Jellyfish drop slimeballs. They can be tamed with fishnets. Just stay away from them.|
|Sharks||Sharks will kill anything that falls on the water except for squid. For breeding/taming details check mob details. They have a 10% drop rate for Shark Eggs and a 60% drop rate for shark teeth when killed. If in a boat around Shark, the shark will attack the boat and after a while destroy it. The shark teeth can be used to craft chain armor, or made into an unenchantable Shark Sword.|
|Big Cats||Big Cats include lions, tigers, cheetahs, white tigers, and panthers. Male lions will attack the player on sight and are extremely dangerous. Female lions will only attack the player if the player attacks them or another lion nearby. They drop Big Cat Claws and leather when killed. They can also be tamed if a cub is found, by throwing raw fish or raw porkchops, and can be named by using a medallion.|
|Wyverns||Wyverns are poisonous dragon-like drake mobs that can be found in the Wyvern Lair. Wyvern eggs can be obtained by slaying wyverns (but only in the wyvern lair). A wyvern has a 10% chance of dropping an egg when killed. Wyverns can be equipped with all three types of horse armor, but not Crystal mount armor. There are thirteen different wyvern species: Jungle, Swamp, Savanna, Sand, Mother, Undead, Light, Dark, Arctic, Cave, Mountain, Sea and Ghost. Once tamed, a wyvern can be ridden and flown around. Using an Essence of undead, light and darkness will only have an effect on a Mother Wyvern, turning it into any of the three tier 2 wyverns. |
Only Tier 1 Wyverns (Jungle, Swamp, Savanna, Sand, Mother, Arctic, Cave, Mountain and Sea wyverns) can be found in the WyvernLair.
Mother Wyverns are larger than any other tier 1 wyvern, and are the same size as tier 2 wyverns (Undead, Light, Dark)
Ghost wyverns can only be obtained by killing tamed wyverns
|Polar Bears||Only spawn in snow biomes and will attack the player on sight. They drop Hide when killed.|
|Piranhas||These tiny fish will attack the player on sight. They drop piranha eggs when killed. They are somewhat easy to spot, since they are a bright red and have sharp teeth.|
|Hellrats||Hellrats spawn in the Nether and are aggressive, attacking the player on sight. Hellrats drop redstone and/or Fire when killed.|
|Scorpions||There are 4 classes of scorpions: Orange Common (Overworld spawn), Black Cave (Cave spawn), Blue Frost (Snow biome spawn) and Red Nether (Nether Spawn). |
Common has a chance of Poisoning you in one of their hits, Cave procs blindness, Frost can make you slower, and Nether can set you on fire. Every scorpion behaves like spiders, neutral at day, hostile at night, and can jump 2 blocks and over gates. Rarely you will encounter a mother scorpion that will have 3-4 baby scorpions on her back. When the mother is killed the babies fall to the ground and run around frantically and are neutral unless attacked. If killed baby scorpions drop string. You can pick these babies up with an empty hand and a naming window will pop up so that they may be automatically tamed. They will then start to grow which take 1-2 minecraft days. They are fed with raw rat. Once tamed they will attack mobs or even other scorpions and pets sometimes. If you put a saddle on a tamed Scorpion, you can move extra quickly and also climb sheer ledges that would normally be impossible while just walking.
|Wraith||Ghosts that fly and attack the player on sight. Drops gunpowder when killed.|
|Flame Wraith||Ghosts that fly and its melee attack will usually set the player on fire (which will not extinguish unless water is used), it can be seen from far away because of the flames that engulf it's body. It drops redstone when killed and only spawns on the hard difficulty. flame Wraiths will spawn in the Nether as well as the surface world.|
|Werewolf||During the day the werewolf is in human form and shouts, "Help me!". When they are hit, they yell or say "Stop it, you're hurting me!". At night, it transforms into a humanoid wolf. They can be easily harmed with a silver sword, dropped by silver skeletons. Other weapons take many hits to kill them. They have the ability to sprint while walking on four legs. The human form can drop wooden sticks and tools, the wolf can drop iron tools and a golden apple. They also are able to move very fast upon chasing the player onto ice. This is useful if being pursued because the werewolf will slide very far away, making them no longer a threat, as long as you can shuffle around to avoid them. They can be killed with any other weapon in human form. There are four different types of werewolves: Fire/Magma, White, Basic(Brown), and Black.|
|Golem||Golems spawn at night, and initially consists of only three blocks: the Head, the Core and a valuable ore cube. When the Golem is near a player, it activates and forms its body. |
Golems have a powerful melee attack, they also have a ranged attack, where the Golem throws one of the blocks off of its arms.
When a Golem is attacked, there is a chance to destroy one of its blocks. The chance of destroying a block depends on the difficulty level. If the chest is open and the core of the golem is exposed, it will suffer damage.
As the Golem suffers damage, it becomes more dangerous. A hint of the danger level of the golem is the color of its power aura. Blue is seen in a Golem that is not attacking. Yellow on a Golem that has started attack, Orange on the Golem that has suffered considerable damage. Red is seen on a Golem about to explode. Run away from red golems.
The Golem will constantly try to acquire replacement blocks. Every time a block is acquired, the Golem is healed (the amount of the healing depends also on the difficulty level)
It may be wise to look for shelter when the Golem power aura is red, as there is not too much time before the Golem explodes.
When a Golem dies, it drops all of the blocks that were part of its body (including the valuable ore cube).
|*Ogres*||Extremely dangerous and will attack on sight. They destroy blocks by smashing them with their sticks/clubs or with their big hands. There are 3 types of ogres: Regular, Fire, and Cave. Regular destroy blocks like the other, fire can set the area surrounding him in fire, and cave will only spawn in dark caves. Regular ogres drop obsidian, fire ogres drop fire (item) to craft a chain armor and cave ogres drops diamonds.|
Mini Golems The mini golem is not as dangerous as the regular golem, but could still take blocks from its surroundings. They pick up single blocks and throw it at the player. When fighting, you can use any tool. Pickaxes and swords do the most damage. Same as the regular golems, they have a core. The color blue means it didn't attack. Yellow means it just started attacking. Orange means it took considerable damage. Red means its about to explode. They drop iron when killed.
|Name||Ingredients||Input » Output||Description|
|Crafted Saddle||Leather + Iron Ingot OR Saddle + Iron Ingot||This is a different saddle from the Saddle that is found inside of dungeons. The Dungeon saddle will only let you ride pigs, whereas this saddle will let you ride Horses, Wyverns, Komodo Dragons, and Big cats.|
|Sugar Lump||Sugar||A Sugar Lump is used to tame Horses and Elephants or to restore health|
|Pet Food||Raw Porkchop + Raw Fish||Feed to pets. Can be put in Kitty Bowl.|
|Medallion||Leather + Gold Ingot||Medallions are used to tame and rename animals.|
|Kitty Bed||Wooden Plank + Wool + Iron Ingot||Kitty Beds are used by kitties to sleep, eat, and give birth. Pet Food or milk must be added for the Cat to use it for eating. Different color wool gives different colored beds. Pick up by Right-Clicking while holding a Pickaxe. You can transport a kitty bed on your head by right clicking on it without holding a pickaxe.|
|Litter Box||Wooden Planks + Sand||Cats will use Litter Boxes after eating. Afterwords, the Litter Box will become "used". Used Litter Boxes attract monsters. Can be cleaned with Sand or by leaving it sit for a while. Pick up by Right-Clicking while holding a pickaxe. You can transport a litter box on your head by right clicking on it without holding a pickaxe.|
|Colored Kitty Bed||Dyes + Kitty Bed||In addition to using colored wool to craft a Kitty Bed, they can be colored by dying them.|
|Whip||BigCat Claw + Leather + Iron Ingot||If a whip is used near cats, they will sit and won't move. Right-Clicking a cat while holding a whip will individually toggle sitting on and off.|
|Wool Ball||String||Holding causes nearby Cats to follow you. Cats given a wool ball will "play" with it by pushing and chasing it around.|
|Chain Helmet||Shark Teeth||Chain armor is a little more effective than Gold Armor and is normally unobtainable, due to being made of fire in vanilla Minecraft.|
|Chain Chestplate||Shark Teeth|
|Chain Leggings||Shark Teeth|
|Chain Boots||Shark Teeth|
|Croc Helmet||Croc Hide||Croc armor is as effective as Iron Armor.|
|Croc Plate||Croc Hide|
|Croc Legs||Croc Hide|
|Croc Boots||Croc Hide|
All tamed animals will not despawn and they can be renamed if already named by right clicking with a medallion, book, or nametag.
To tame a Big Cat you must first find a cub. When you find the cub, drop raw fish or pork chops and use a medallion on it after it has eaten at least one. You can name it and it will follow you if you use a lead on it. Without the lead it will not follow you and roam around aimlessly. Use a whip to make them sit down. When tamed and fully grown, it will attack other mobs. A Big Cat won't take any fall damage once tamed, and you can also ride them once fully grown. This works on all of the big cats; Lions, Tigers, Cheetahs/Leopards, White Tiger/Snow Leopard, and Panthers. You will also be able to cross breed the different types of Big Cats, creating Hybrids.
You can tame birds by giving them seeds, which is achieved by throwing the seeds to them. Once a bird is tamed it will not run away from the player and will not despawn, and you can put it on the character's head by right-clicking on it. Once a bird is on the character's head, they are able to glide with it. If the player has a bird on their head and they walk under a block that is just above their head, the bird will die. If they're riding a Pegasus or Fairy Horse with a bird on their head it will cause the Horse to fly faster.
Dolphins can be tamed and bred similarly to horses. Currently there is only one food that can reduce their temper:
|Fish||-25 temper (To a minimum of 1)|
Dolphins do not require a saddle to be ridden. Dolphins are fed and tamed in the same manner as horses.
There are currently (V2.8) 6 different types of dolphin with different speeds, temperaments, and chance to spawn in the wild.
All dolphins have 30 health
Dolphin breeding works rather differently than horse breeding.
To breed dolphins you will require:
To breed dolphins you must give each a cooked fish. Unlike horses, dolphins cannot become sterile and may breed indefinitely. After 5 minutes there will be a 3rd dolphin. If the two dolphins are of the same breed they will always have a baby of that breed, otherwise their Total Genetic Value (TGV) determines both the chance of getting a certain breed and which breed will be gotten.
If their TGV is less than 5 and they are of different breeds there is a ⅓ chance of breeding a dolphin whose genetic value is equal to the TGV. If TGV is 5 or 6 and they are of different breeds there is a 1/10 chance of breeding a dolphin whose genetic value is equal to the TGV. If the breed is not determined in this manner it will be determined as for spawning a wild dolphin.
To tame an elephant, first find a calf of the desired species, then feed it either 5 cakes or 10 sugar lumps. A grown elephant can be ridden with an elephant harness, and each can hold up to two chest sets.
To ride an elephant, use Sneak to cause it to crouch. Release sneak and mount as you would normally, with right click.
To heal give haystack.
Other abilities are:
|Asian||Can equip a luxurious garment and a throne|
|Woolly Mammoth||Can carry two extra chests|
|Songhua River Mammoth||Can equip a mammoth platform, allowing for an extra passenger|
Fish are some of the easiest creatures to tame. All you need is a fish bowl, and then you just head out into the water and catch the fish you wish to hold (This is only possible with Lil' fish however), or use a fishing net and name your fish (only for small and medium fish).
Foxes can be tamed with raw turkey meat. Heal them with raw rat meat. Arctic Foxes can be found in Snow Biomes and tamed the same way. Foxes do follow you as of Version 1.8. You cannot place a fox on your head.
Goats are very easy to tame. Simply right click on them with any edible item (cake, apples, fish, etc.). Tame goats can be lead around by ropes. Goats will also follow the player if he is carrying food. Female goats are able to be milked. If the player tries to milk a male goat, it will attack the player. If holding wheat or a variety of certain items, both genders of goats will attack the player.
Taming horses is a complex process. Before you begin taming, you must put a saddle on the horse by holding the saddle and right clicking on the horse. Next you must feed them to reduce their temper. Each type of horse has an amount of temper that must be removed before it is considered tame. Different foods will reduce temper by different amounts. Here are all foods that can currently (V2.7) be used to reduce temper. Once tamed, a horse will not despawn.
For Zebra taming it is a little different as you need to breed horses until you get a cow (white and black) colored horse. A Zebra will not be tamable otherwise. Once you have a cow horse, get an apple and a horse saddle. Then go find yourself a Zebra and tame it while sitting on your cow horse.
|Wheat||-instantly tame/-25 temper|
|Sugar Lump||-50 temper (To a minimum of 25)|
|Bread||-100 temper (To a minimum of 25)|
To feed a horse hold the food you wish to feed it then right click on the horse. As of V2.7 and earlier, there is a bug that causes you to eat a sugar lump when feeding it to a horse, using 2 sugar cubes per right click. After reducing temper to 25 or lower the horse must be ridden to complete taming. An additional feeding may be necessary whilst on the horse, giving the player a prompt to name your pet. It is recommended that you reduce temper as much as possible before attempting to ride a horse. To ride a horse, right click it while not holding food. While being tamed, horses will buck you off, possibly several times, possibly causing fall damage.
There are currently (V2.7) 8 different types of horse with different speeds, hit points totals, temperaments, and chance to spawn in the wild.
|Breed||Color / Description||Speed||Hit Points||Temper||SpawnChance|
|Regular Horse||Light brown||0.9||25||100||50%|
The Orespawn mod gives access to several dimensions. be accessed by right- clicking a Brown Ant. The dimension is free from Hostile Mobs.
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