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How to craft burner icbm

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How to craft burner icbm
May 06, 2019 Events Calendar 2 comments

ICBM is a Minecraft Mod that introduces intercontinental ballistic missiles to Minecraft.

All of the explosives in ICBM have a tier and a form. Currently, ICBM has four tiers of explosives. Each tier has a separate color scheme. Tier one is green, tier two is red, tier three is blue and tier four is black. Tier four, when fired, contains two explosives and two missiles.

Some explosives have different forms . Tier 1 explosives can be blocks, grenades, or missiles. Tier 2 and higher can only be found in block and missile varieties. Most explosives require other, lower grade explosives on order to craft them.

Tiers

There many types of missiles for each Tier.

  • 7 Tier 1 missiles
  • 10 Tier 2 missiles
  • 7 Tier 3 missiles
  • 2 Tier 4 missiles

The higher the tier, the more powerful the missile.

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Tier 4

Using Missiles

Missiles can only be launched from Launcher Platforms. There are 3 levels of launching platforms, each one allowing higher missile tiers to be launched from it. There are also Launcher Support Frames that you can build in order to increase accuracy when firing the missiles.

It also introduces a Launcher Control Panel. There are 3 tiers for launch control panels. To select the location of the missile, you need to either enter the coordinates of the location, or use a Radar Gun. You will also need to power the launch control panel with a redstone current to launch the missile. Or alternately, with level 3 launchers, you can use a Laser Designator to designate a target from a distance. There is also a Cruise Launcher which travels along the surface to its target avoiding ground obstacles.


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Andrew Little - the Minister in charge of the GCSB and SIS - says he's used a burner phone in China because there's a risk the Chinese.


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Atlas



Atlas
Credit: (c) Mark Wade
The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career.

AKA: B-65;CGM/HGM-16D/E/F;CTM-16D/E;HGM-16;SM-65;X-11;X-12. Status: Retired 2004.

Atlas began with a US Army Air Corps request for proposal in October 1945 for long-range missile designs. By 10 January 1946, Consolidated-Vultee's engineers, under the leadership of Belgian-born Karel Bossart, submitted their proposals for two 6,000-nautical mile missiles: one subsonic, winged, and jet powered; the other supersonic, ballistic, and rocket powered. New technologies proposed for the ballistic missile included extremely low structural weight through use of steel monocoque single-wall construction tanks, kept rigid by internal tank pressure; gimbaled rocket engines; a detachable warhead section; and nearly single-stage to orbit performance through the ‘stage-and-a-half' approach of jettisoning the booster engines during the ascent.

On 19 April Convair received a contract for $1,893,000 to fabricate and test ten MX-774 Hiroc missiles to verify Bossart's innovative ballistic missile concepts. Captive testing of the MX-774 research rockets began in San Diego in 1947. In June, Consolidated Vultee was notified that it had lost the cruise missile competition; Northrop and Martin received contracts for development of their subsonic jet-powered cruise missile designs. Defense cutbacks forced the Air Force to terminate the MX-774 contract in July 1947, only three months before the first scheduled flight. The remaining contract funds allowed three MX-774's to be test-launched at White Sands Proving Ground in July-December 1947. Further work at Convair was reduced to ‘Mafia' low-level design activity using company funds.

The outbreak of the Korean war and the beginning of the cold war loosened the federal purse strings. Convair received a new contract (MX-1593) in September 1951 to begin design of a ballistic missile incorporating the design features validated by the MX-774. In 1953 the now-Convair Division of General Dynamics presented a plan to the Air Force for an accelerated program.

A major propulsion problem in the early 1950's was that liquid rocket motor ignition reliability was less than 50 percent. This led to the stage-and-a-half concept, with all engines ignited prior to lift-off and the booster engines jettisoned during flight. This allowed confirmation that all engines were functioning correctly before releasing the missile for flight.

A full go-ahead for the Atlas design was ordered in January 1955 as Weapon System WS107A-l. At Convair the project was known the Model 7 (in Russia, Korolev was working on the competing R-7 ICBM - evidently both sides wanted to use the lucky number). In September 1955, faced with intelligence reports of Russian progress on their ICBM, the Atlas received the highest national development priority. The project became one of the largest and most complex production, testing, and construction programs ever undertaken. The first propulsion system and component tests were conducted in June 1956; the first captive and flight-test missiles were completed later the same year.

The first Atlas A flight took place on 11 June 1957. In a tremendous national effort, by 1959 a peak of 33,000 personnel were working on the project. Total cost of the Atlas ICBM program to the United States was $8 billion. About a quarter of this went to Convair to design and develop the missile and launch facilities. The balance was for the tremendous cost of the ICBM launch facilities. For all of this effort, the Atlas was quickly obsolete, and the facilities were closed by 1966 after five years of service. However surplus ICBM's were stored, refurbished, and used as space launch vehicles until the last was flown in 1995 - 33 years after it was manufactured.

The first operational missile, the Atlas D, was the basis for launching the Mercury manned spacecraft into orbit. By use of Agena and Centaur upper stages, the Atlas became the medium-lift workhorse of American manned, reconnaissance, planetary, and geosynchronous-orbit space programs. After the retirement of the Atlas-Agena in 1978, the Centaur stage became standard on Atlas launch vehicles.

Centaur began with a contract awarded to General Dynamics by the Advanced Research Project Agency in 1958. The first space vehicle to use liquid hydrogen, Centaur was a pioneering project that solved the many technical problems of using the super-cryogenic and highly volatile fuel. Pratt & Whitney Aircraft was awarded the contract to develop Centaur's RL-10 engines. The US Air Force had already built the first large-quantity liquid hydrogen production facility for the deep black Suntan reconnaissance program.

In 1962, with the hydrogen propulsion technology being vital to the success of the Apollo program, Centaur management was transferred to NASA's Lewis Research Center. Lewis had fired their first experimental Lox/LH2 engine of 5,000 pounds thrust in 1953. The Centaur project was given the highest DX priority, but suffered delays due to management problems at both NASA and Convair. The first successful flight of Centaur atop Atlas occurred in November 1963. However thereafter von Braun's Saturn S-IV stage, using six of the RL-10 motors, leapfrogged the Centaur program . By the time of the first operational Centaur mission in May 1966, the S-IV had already completed its test series of six orbital flights. Yet thirty years later, the Saturn was long gone, and the Centaur continued, having been launched or planned for launch from Atlas, Titan, Delta, and Shuttle vehicles. Production continued into the 21st century, and no replacement for the RL-10 engine, the ultimate engine using the ultimate propellants, was ever put into production.

Development Cost $: 2,230.000 million. Recurring Price $: 8.309 million in 1965 dollars. Flyaway Unit Cost 1985$: 1.800 million in 1965 dollars.


More at: Atlas.


Subtopics

Atlas 3A American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas IIIA was a development of the Atlas using Russian engines in place of the Rocketdyne MA-5 booster/sustainer group used on all previous models. It was the centerpiece of Lockheed Martin's strategy to remain a leader in the commercial launch services industry. However customers never materialized, and it was used for only two launches in 2002-2004 before being replaced by the Atlas V.

Atlas 3B American orbital launch vehicle. This was the first version of the Atlas to fly using Russian RD-180 engines; and the last version to fly using the original balloon-tank concept for the first stage. It differed from the Atlas IIIA in use of a stretched, two-engine upper stage, and had a brief three-year operational career in 2002-2005 before being superseded by the Atlas V.

Atlas 3B DEC American orbital launch vehicle variant, Atlas IIIB with dual-engine Centaur upper stage.

Atlas A American test vehicle. First test model of Atlas ICBM. Two booster engines, no sustainer, dummy warhead. 50% reliability in 8 flight tests.

Atlas Able American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas with upper stage based on Vanguard second stage.

Atlas Agena A American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D + 1 x Agena A upper stage. Agena originally called 'Hustler', based on engine for cancelled rocket-propelled nuclear warhead pod for B-58 Hustler bomber.

Atlas Agena B American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D with improved, enlarged Agena upper stage.

Atlas Agena D American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D with further improved and lightened Agena upper stage.

Atlas B American test vehicle. First all-up test version of the Atlas ICBM, with jettisonable booster engines and a single engine sustainer on core - a '1 1/2' stage launch vehicle.

Atlas Burner 2 American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas SLV-3 + 1 x Star 37B upper stage.

Atlas C American test vehicle. Last development version of Atlas. Never deployed operationally or used for space launches.

Atlas C Able American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Atlas C first stage, Able AJ10-101A second stage, Altair solid third stage.

Atlas Centaur American orbital launch vehicle. First test version of Atlas with Centaur upper stage.

Atlas Centaur D American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Centaur D upper stage.


Atlas D American intercontinental ballistic missile. Rocket used both as a space launcher and ICBM.

Atlas D Able American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Atlas D first stage, Able AJ10-101A second stage, Altair solid third stage.

Atlas D CGM-16 American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM version.

Atlas E American intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial fully operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance system from Atlas F. Deployed as missiles from 1960 to 1966. After retirement, the ICBM's were refurbished and used over twenty years as space launch vehicles.

Atlas E Altair American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 20 upper stage.


Atlas E/MSD American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x MSD upper stage.

Atlas E/OIS American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x OIS upper stage.

Atlas E/SGS-2 American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 48 + 1 x Star 48 upper stages.

Atlas E/SVS American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 37E + 1 x Star 37E upper stages.


Atlas F American intercontinental ballistic missile. Final operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance systems. Deployed as missiles from 1961 to 1966. After retirement, the ICBM's were refurbished and used for over thirty years as space launch vehicles.

Atlas F Burner 2A American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x Star 37B + 1 x Star 26B upper stages.

Atlas F HGM-16F American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM version. Also CGM-16F


Atlas F/MSD American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x MSD upper stage.

Atlas F/OIS American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x OIS upper stage.

Atlas F/PTS American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x Star 37E upper stage.

Atlas F/SVS American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x Star 37E + 1 x Star 37E upper stages.


Atlas G American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles using stretched, uprated Atlas core.

Atlas G Centaur Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles using stretched, uprated Atlas core.

Atlas H American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas H used the Atlas first stage developed for the Atlas G vehicle. It was flown without the Centaur upper stage.

Atlas I American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas I launch vehicle was derived from the Atlas G, and included the same basic vehicle components (Atlas booster and Centaur upper stage). Significant improvements in the guidance and control system were made with an emphasis on replacing analog flight control components with digital units interconnected with a digital data bus.

Atlas II American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas II booster was 2.7-meters longer than an Atlas I and included uprated Rocketdyne MA-5A engines. The Atlas I vernier engines were replaced with a hydrazine roll control system. The Centaur stage was stretched 0.9-meters compared to the Centaur I stage. Fixed foam insulation replaced Atlas I's jettisonable insulation panels. The original Atlas II model was developed to support the United States Air Force Medium Launch Vehicle II program. Its Centaur used RL10A-3-3A engines operating at an increased mixture ratio. The first Atlas II flew on 7 December 1991, successfully delivering AC-102/Eutelsat II F3 to orbit.

Atlas IIA American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas IIA was a commercial derivative of the Atlas II developed for the US Air Force. Higher performance RL10A-4 (or RL10A-4-1) engines replaced Atlas II's RL10A-3-3A engines.

Atlas IIAS American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas II booster was 2.7-meters longer than the Atlas I and included uprated Rocketdyne MA-5A engines. The Atlas I vernier engines were replaced with a hydrazine roll control system. The Centaur stage was stretched 0.9-meters compared to the Centaur I stage. Fixed foam insulation replaced Atlas I's jettisonable insulation panels. Higher performance RL10A-4 or RL10A-4-1 engines replaced Atlas II's RL10A-3-3A. The Atlas IIAS model added four Thiokol Castor IVA solid rocket boosters (SRBs) to the core Atlas stage to augment thrust for the first two minutes of flight.

Atlas LV-3A / Agena B American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D with improved, enlarged Agena upper stage.

Atlas LV-3B American orbital launch vehicle. First operational version of Atlas ICBM and used as launch vehicle for Project Mercury.


Atlas SLV-3 American orbital launch vehicle. Standardized Atlas booster with no or small solid upper stage.

Atlas SLV-3 Agena B American orbital launch vehicle. Standardized Atlas booster with Agena B upper stage.





Atlas Vega American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas-Vega consisted of an Atlas booster with a storable propellant upper stage. It was planned by NASA at its inception for deep space and planetary missions before the Atlas Centaur was available. Work had already begun when NASA discovered that the CIA and the US Air Force had an essentially identical launch vehicle (Atlas-Hustler, later called Atlas-Agena) in development for the highly classified Corona reconnaissance satellite program. Atlas-Vega was accordingly cancelled.

Atlas-B (mod.) American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas B test ICBM modified to orbit the Score satellite.

Atlas-D Antares-2 American orbital launch vehicle variant with Atlas D first stage, Antares-2 solid propellant second stage.

Atlas-D OV1 American orbital launch vehicle variant with Atlas D first stage, OV1 package.


Atlas-E/-F OV1 American orbital launch vehicle variant. Atlas E + OV1 upper stage.








Concept ICBM American orbital launch vehicle. The January 1951 design for the Atlas used seven main engines plus two vernier engines to hurl the 3600 kg nuclear warhead over a 9300 km range. CEP was optimistically estimated as 460 m.

Contracted Atlas American orbital launch vehicle. The 1954 design for the Atlas as contracted for by the Air Force used three main engines to power a 110 metric ton rocket able to send a 1400 kg nuclear warhead over a 10,200 km range. CEP was 3700 m. The missile actually delivered six years later would have the same dimensions and launch mass, but 63% more range and four times better accuracy.

Hiroc American test vehicle. Project MX-774 inaugurated by AAF with Consolidated-Vultee to study rocket capabilities with an ICBM as a final objective. Limited funds permitted a few test launches. These rockets demonstrated technologies that would later be applied to the Atlas.

MX-1593 American orbital launch vehicle. The September 1951 design for the Atlas used seven main engines to hurl the 3600 kg nuclear warhead over a 9300 km range. CEP was 1850 m.

Proposed Atlas American orbital launch vehicle. The April 1953 design for the Atlas at the time of Convair's proposal used five main engines to power a 200 metric tone rocket able to send a 1400 kg nuclear warhead over a 10,200 km range. CEP was 1850 m.

World Series American orbital launch vehicle. In May 1956 the Air Force proposed mating an Atlas A with an Aerobee-Hi upper stage in order to launch a satellite during the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). The Eisenhower administration selected the Vanguard instead. After Sputnik, an Atlas B with no upper stage orbited the Score satellite as a reply to the Soviet's Sputnik 3.

Family: orbital launch vehicle. Country: USA. Spacecraft: Intruder, Quasar, SAINT, Score, Aeronutronics Project 7969, Convair Project 7969, Lockheed Project 7969, McDonnell Project 7969, Outpost, Project Mer, Mercury, Pioneer P 3, Mercury Space Suit, Midas, Samos, Gemini, Ranger 1-2, Westford Needles, Mariner R, SECOR, Ranger 3-4-5, Mariner 1-2, ERS, Orbital Workshop, SSF, Dash, TRS, KH-7, Vela, Surveyor, Ranger 6-7-8-9, FIRE, OGO, Calsphere, Surveyor Block II, Mariner 3-4, OV1, Surveyor Lunar Rover, Snapshot, LCS, Surveyor Orbiter, Gemini Agena Target Vehicle, Bluebell, OAO, Atlas Target Docking Adapter, Lunar Orbiter, ATS-1, Prime, ATS-2, Research Payload Module 481, OV5, Mariner 5, ATS-3, Canyon, ATS-4, Orbiscal, RADCAT, RM, Boost Glide Re-entry Vehicle, Mariner 6-7, ATS-5, Rhyolite, Intelsat 4, Mariner 8-9, Cannonball, Gridsphere, Musketball, Mylar, Rigidsphere, NOSS, Pioneer 10-11, Radsat, Mariner 10, NTS, P 72, Spacebus 100, Intelsat 4A, NOSS-Subsat, HEAO, FLTSATCOM, GPS Block 1, Pioneer 12, Seasat, Pioneer 13, Tiros N, Solwind, HS 376, Intelsat 5, LIPS, AS 3000, DSCS III, DMSP Block 5D-2, Advanced Tiros N, Geosat, Intelsat 5A, AS 4000, Eurostar 2000, FS-1300, HS 601, Stacksat P87-2, CRRES, AS 5000, AS 7000, GOES-Next, SOHO, SAX, Spacebus 3000, AS 2100, Falcon Gold, CAPRICORN, Terra, SDS-3, NOSS-3. Agency: Convair. Bibliography: 126, 1269, 16, 17, 171, 172, 18, 2, 26, 276, 278, 279, 281, 296, 33, 34, 42, 4460, 45, 48, 480, 483, 498, 552, 554, 563, 567, 59, 6, 60, 61, 88.
Photo Gallery

New Generation LVs
From left: 3 versions of Atlas 5, 5 versions of Delta 4, 3 versions of Chinese NGLV, Ariane 5. Vertical scale is 10 m intervals.
Credit: © Mark Wade


WS-107
WS-107 Concept 1. Before the Tea Pot report, Atlas was to have five thrust chambers and double the throw weight.
Credit: Ronald Wade


WS-107
WS-107 Concept 2. First mock-up of the Atlas missile in the three-chamber configuration.
Credit: Ronald Wade


Atlas Family
From left - MX-774 of 1946; MX-1593 of 1953; Atlas A, B, D; Atlas Agena D; Atlas Centaur; Atlas I, IIA, IIAS, IIIA, IIIB, V
Credit: © Mark Wade


MX-774
Credit: © Mark Wade


MX-774
MX-774 in its gantry.
Credit: Ronald Wade


Atlas 1953 5-engine
Credit: © Mark Wade


Atlas B
Credit: US Air Force


Atlas B
Credit: © Mark Wade


Atlas D OV
Atlas D OV-1 (2x) - COSPAR 1966-111


Atlas manned lab




Atlas D Mercury BW
Credit: NASA


Atlas D
Credit: © Mark Wade


Atlas D Mercury
Credit: NASA


Mercury Atlas 9
Credit: NASA


Mercury Atlas 5
Credit: NASA


Atlas E
Atlas E - COSPAR 1991-032


Atlas E
Credit: US Air Force


Atlas F
Credit: © Mark Wade




Atlas Burner 2A
Atlas Burner 2A - COSPAR 1972-076




Atlas Agena A
Credit: US Air Force


Atlas Agena A
Credit: © Mark Wade






Atlas Agena B
Atlas Agena B - COSPAR 1962 Eta




Atlas Agena D
Credit: © Mark Wade


Agenhgre
Agena D stages in process, Hangar E, Cape Canaveral


Atlas ATDA
Credit: US Air Force


Atlas Agena D
Credit: © Mark Wade


Atlas Agena
Last Atlas Agena - Agena s/n P113 - 6 April 1978


Atlas Agena
First Atlas Agena - Agena s/n 1008 - Midas 1


Agena D
Agena D rocket stage being raised for mating with Atlas launch vehicle


Atlas Agena
Atlas Agena / Ranger C launch vehicle




SLV-3C Centaur
SLV-3C Centaur AC-17 - COSPAR 1968-068


Atlas Centaur
Atlas Centaur at Sunrise
Credit: Lockheed Martin




Atlas Centaur No. 40
Credit: Lockheed Martin


Atlas 2
Credit: © Mark Wade


Atlas Centaur
Centaur Launch Vehicle
Credit: © Mark Wade


Atlas Centaur No.69
Credit: Lockheed Martin


Atlas 2AS
Credit: © Mark Wade


Atlas LV
Atlas LV-3C s/n AC-3 - 1964-06-30


Atlas Centaur C
Credit: © Mark Wade



1946 January 11 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • Strategic Missile Proposals - . Nation: USA.

    Bids were received in response to the USAAF request for proposal of the previous October. Vultee submitted proposals for two types (glide and ballistic) of 8000-km range missiles. North American proposed a three-year development program for a supersonic 800-km range missile, culminating in a production run of 50 missiles.


1946 April 2 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • MX-774 strategic missile study contract awarded - . Nation: USA. Convair received contract W33-038-AC-14168 for a $1.4 million, one-year study of two missile designs..

1946 December - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • MX-774 Azusa tracking - . Nation: USA. Study report submitted to Air Force on proposed Azusa tracking/guidance system. MX-774 funding cut back..

Early 1947 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • MX-774 Azusa tracking tests - . Nation: USA. Tracking tests started with experimental Azusa equipment.

1947 July 1 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • MX-774 cancelled. - . Nation: USA.

    Contract with Convair for the MX-774 "Upper Air Test Vehicle," predecessor of the Atlas ICBM, was cancelled by the AAF. However the service approves Convair use of unexpended MX-774 funds to launch the MX-774 test vehicles already built. The decision made to move Vultee operations to San Diego.


1947 October - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • First complete MX-774 moved to Pt. Loma for test - . Nation: USA.

1947 November 20 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • First static firing of MX-774 - . Nation: USA. Unsuccessful, small fire..

1948 January - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • Second MX-774 static firing - . Nation: USA. Successful, at Point Loma..

1948 May 6 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • MX-774 static firing tests at Pt Loma completed. - . Nation: USA.

1948 June - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • First MX-774 arrives at White Sands Proving Ground - . Nation: USA.

1948 July 14 - . 01:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc. FAILURE: Cutoff after half of the propellants were used.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • MX-774 Flight 1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). First Convair MX-774 (RTV-A-2) test rocket was successfully launched, first demonstrating use of gimballed engines and design features later incorporated in the Atlas ICBM. This was the first of three Convair-sponsored test flights..

1948 September 27 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc. FAILURE: Cutoff at 16 km altitude.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • MX-774 Flight 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 47 km (29 mi). Second Corvair MX-774 test rocket fired. Shut down at 15 km; reached 65 km before malfunction of unknown origin caused self-destruction..

1948 December 2 - . 22:01 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc. FAILURE: Vibration closed valve early..
  • MX-774 Flight 3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi). Third (last) MX-774 launched, WSPG; shut down at 51 seconds attaining an altitude of 48 km. Self-destructed at high altitude..

1949 February - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • All MX-774 work shut off by Air Force - . Nation: USA.

During 1949 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Hiroc.
  • MX-774 unexpended funds run out in 1950. - . Nation: USA. Convair allocated R&D funds to ICBM studies and marketing, running into 1950.

1950 October 1 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • RAND studies ICBM's. - . Nation: USA. Rand Corp. completed missile feasibility studies begun in 1949, which confirmed the military practicability of long-range rocket weapons..

1951 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas tracking system. - . Nation: USA. Azusa tracking system reaching advanced stage of development.

1951 January 16 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Concept ICBM.
  • Project MX-1593 (Project Atlas) begins. - . Nation: USA.

    Air Force established Project MX-1593 (Project Atlas), study phase for an intercontinental missile. Requirements included 8000-pound warhead, 5000 nautical mile range, to hit within 1500 ft. CEP. $1.5 million study contract was awarded to Consolidated-Vultee Aircraft on January 23. This was the follow-on to Project MX-774 terminated in 1947. Several test vehicles had been fired using residual funds in 1948 and 1949, after which the Convair MX-774 (Atlas) missile project had been shelved. The company, however, had continued to fund a research program.


1951 August - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas to be accelerated. - . Nation: USA. AF Gen. John Sessums proposes Atlas acceleration.

1951 August - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: MX-1593.
  • Atlas XB-65 configuration. - . Nation: USA. MX-1593 named "Project Atlas" as XB-65; 120 feet long, 12-foot diameter, 7 engines, 8000-pound warhead, CEP 1 nautical mile.

1951 September 1 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: MX-1593.
  • Atlas project to concentrate on ballistic missile. - . Nation: USA. MX-1593 glide missile cancelled. USAF directed all work in Project MX-1593 (Atlas) be for development of a rocket-powered ballistic missile..

Late 1951/early 1952 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Reports of large Russian rocket engines - . Nation: USA.

During 1952 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Proposed Atlas.
  • Reduced thermonuclear warhead size will allow American ICBM's to be smaller. - . Nation: USA. Atlas 3000-pound warhead anticipated, 1500-foot CEP.

1952 March - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Gen. Joseph McNarney joins Convair - . Nation: USA.

1953 January - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Millikan Committee Report - . Nation: USA. Millikan Committee report issued, saying Atlas could be operational by 1963.

Spring 1953 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Proposed Atlas.
  • Atlas size reduced. - . Nation: USA. Atlas 12-foot diameter, 110 feet long, 440,000 pounds, 3000-pound warhead, 5500 nautical mile range, 1500-foot CEP.

1953 June - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • US guided missile status review - . Nation: USA. Defense Secretary Wilson institutes reviews of guided missiles' status.

1953 July - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • J.R. Dempsey joins Convair - . Nation: USA.

1953 September - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Von Neumann's "Teapot Committee" established - . Nation: USA.

1953 October - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Contracted Atlas.
  • Teapot Committee's first output - . Nation: USA. ICBM could use smaller warhead.

1953 December 3 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Convair leases test facility. - . Nation: USA. A five-year Pt. Loma lease was approved..

1954 January 27 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Reorganization of USAF ballistic missile programs. - .

    Mr. Trevor Gardner, Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development, recommended to Air Force Chief of Staff General Nathan Twining, that the Air Force ballistic missile programs be reorganized.The "new" program would be provided with centralized management authority. The change was recommended to minimize the existing complexities and to focus attention on the importance of the program.


1954 February 8 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas) operational by the early 1960s. - .

    A Rand Corporation memorandum by Dr. Bruno W. Augenstein indicated that the Atlas ballistic missile (Project MX-1593) could be operational by the early 1960s. The missile, then , then under development by Consolidated-Vultee Aircraft Corporation (Convair), could make that date if the existing stringent performance criteria were relaxed while funding and program priority were increased.


1954 February 10 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Teapot Report - .

    The Strategic Missiles Evaluation ("Teapot") Committee, established in October 1953 and chaired by Professor John von Neumann, submitted its report on intercontinental strategic missiles. Convair's ICBM design was feasible, as was acceleration of the program. The von Neumann Committee recommended changes similar to those outlined in the Rand study of 8 February. In addition, the report urged the establishment of a development-management group with sufficient authority, funds, and priority to reorient and accelerate the ballistic missile program.


1954 February 26 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas B.
  • Atlas sustainer rocket engine contract - . The Air Force issued a contract to North American Aviation for continued development of a liquid-fueled sustainer rocket engine for Convair's Project Atlas..

1954 February 26 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas management structure outlined - .

    Trevor Gardner, Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development, held a meeting in Washington. Included were representatives of the Air Research and Development Command (ARDC). Headquarters USAF, certain former members of the von Neumann Committee, and concerned contractor personnel. Among the problems discussed was the manner of meshing the scientific and technical operations in ballistic missile development with the prime contractor who would actually build the missiles. Finally it was agreed that the scientific-technical group recommended by the Strategic Missiles Evaluation Committee would be placed under an industrial contractor or university and would be balanced by an Air Force organization set up to supervise the whole show.


1954 March - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Proposed Atlas.
  • First Atlas hardware. - . Nation: USA. 12-foot diameter Atlas tank completed by Solar.

1954 March 1 - . LV Family: Atlas, Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas booster propulsion system work begins. - . Nation: USA. Work on MA-2 propulsion system for Atlas by Rocketdyne was begun, drawing upon the experience in developing the regeneratively cooled chamber developed for the Navaho..

1954 March - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Contracted Atlas.
  • US tests confirm feasibility of small thermonuclear warheads - . Nation: USA.

    The United States exploded its first "droppable" hydrogen bomb in the Marshall Islands. A second U.S. thermonuclear device was successfully tested on 20 March. These tests as part of Operation Castle confirmed the feasibility of the development of lightweight, high-yield thermonuclear weapons. This advance allowed the previously restrictive performance characteristics of the Atlas to be relaxed to the point where continued development was within the existing "state-of-the-art."


1954 March 8 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • First public indication that Project Atlas exists - . Nation: USA.

1954 March 11 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Plan for accelerating the intercontinental ballistic missile program. - . Related Persons: Schriever.

    As a result of the 26 February meeting, Trevor Gardner submitted a plan for accelerating the intercontinental ballistic missile system (IBMS) program. This was sent to Secretary of the Air Force Harold E Talbott and Air Force Chief of Staff General Nathan Twining. The plan called for emergency funding and an operational capability as early as 1958-60. Mr. Gardner also recommended that high-ranking military officers be placed in charge of the revised program and specifically named Major General James McCormack, Jr., Vice Commander of ARDC, and Brigadier General Bernard A. Schriever, then Assistant for Development Planning, Deputy Chief of Staff/Development, Headquarters USAF, for the top positions.


1954 March 16 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas performance specifications relaxed so that the program could be accelerated. - .

    The Air Force Council recommended to the Chief of Staff that the Atlas missile's performance specifications be relaxed so that the program could be accelerated as much as possible. It also recommended the use of Air Force funds to finance the program, a reorientation of the program to achieve the earliest possible operational capability, the assignment of program responsibility to Air Research and Development Command, and the establishment of a special development-management organization to recommend further measures to accelerate the entire Atlas program.


1954 March 19 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas acceleration ordered. - . Air Force Secretary Harold E. Talbott directed General Twining to take all necessary actions to implement the Strategic Missiles Evaluation Committee's recommendations of 10 February..

1954 March 23 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas acceleration measures approved. - . General Nathan Twining, Chief of Staff of the Air Force, approved the Air Force Council's recommendations of 16 March..

1954 Apr - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • USAF established the Atlas Scientific Advisory Committee - .

    Due to the continuing need for the best available scientific advice for the reorientation and acceleration of the Atlas program, Headquarters USAF established the Atlas Scientific Advisory Committee. Subsequently redesignated the ICBM Scientific Advisory Committee, this Committee was essentially a reconstitution of the former von Neumann Committee (Strategic Missiles Evaluation Committee) which had disbanded following the submission of its report on 10 February. The new Committee was also chaired by John von Neumann, but its membership was expanded and slightly different from the old "Teapot" Committee.


1954 April 8 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • USAF Assistant Chief of Staff for Guided Missiles - . Headquarters USAF established the new office of Assistant Chief of Staff for Guided Missiles (AFCGM) - a clear indication of the importance now attached to the missile program..

1954 April 9 - . LV Family: Atlas, Thor.
  • Ballistic missiles to move forward with all practicable speed. - .

    In a memorandum to Secretary of the Air Force Harold E. Talbott, Deputy Secretary of Defense Roger M. Keyes stressed that the plans for the ballistic missile program "be formulated with a thoroughly realistic appraisal of the capabilities of our contractors to meet their commitments." He then emphasized that the program was to move forward "with all practicable speed."


1954 April 14 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Agreement on the proposed plan to accelerate Atlas. - .

    Trevor Gardner informed General Twining, Air Force Chief of Staff, that the 19 March memorandum from Secretary of the Air Force Harold E. Talbott and the Air Force Council's actions of 16 March were substantially in agreement on the proposed plan to accelerate Atlas. The program was to be reoriented, and its acceleration was to proceed at maximum possible effort with no limitation on funding. The accomplishment of the new program was to be the direct responsibility of a field office under a general officer who would have authority and control over all aspects of the program.


1954 May - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Schriever named head of Atlas program. - . Related Persons: Schriever. In addition to his other duties, Brigadier General Bernard A. Schriever was appointed Assistant for Project Atlas to the Director of Research and Development..

1954 May - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas receives high priority. - . Lt General Donald L. Putt, DCS/Development, Headquarters USAF, informed his subordinates that Project Atlas had the highest program priority in the Air Force..

1954 May 3 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Ramo-Wooldridge contracted for Atlas technical support. - .

    Development Command gave the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation a new contract to continue research and experimental investigations that had been begun in support of the original von Neumann Committee. Part of Ramo-Wooldridge's work involved technical evaluations and systems analyses of Project Atlas to be performed over a 12-month period and to be used for the redefinition of the program prior to its acceleration. In addition, conclusions and recommendations resulting from research completed under previous contracts were to be analyzed for possible future applications.


1954 May 14 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas program accelerated to the maximum extent that technology would permit. - .

    General Thomas D. White, Air Force Vice Chief of Staff, informed Headquarters USAF offices and personnel that the Atlas program would be accelerated to the maximum extent that technology would permit. To insure the necessary support, the program was given the highest research and development priority in the Air Force (1-A), while it received a 1-2 category and precedence rating and a S-l supply priority. Field responsibility for the Atlas program during development and test would be assigned to Air Research and Development Command which would establish a field office on the west coast commanded by a general officer.


1954 May 17 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Ramo-Woolridge contracted for Atlas systems integration. - . Nation: USA. Ramo-Wooldridge given letter contract as Technical Director and Systems Integrator for Atlas program.

1954 Jun - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • USAF Western Development Division established. - . Related Persons: Schriever. In June 1954, the Air Force established the Western Development Division under the direction of BrigGen Bernard A. Schriever. Early planning and development of the Atlas ICBM was conducted from there..

1954 Jun - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Responsibility for accelerating Atlas program given to USAF ARDC. - .

    Lt General Donald L. Putt officially assigned the responsibility for reorienting and accelerating the Atlas program to Headquarters, Air Research and Development Command. The general officer appointed to command the office was to be given authority and control over the entire Atlas program which already had been granted the highest priority in the Air Force on 14 May.


1954 June 21 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Schriever named head of Atlas program. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Schriever. Brigadier-General Bernard A. Schriever, ARDC, assigned to head Atlas program.

1954 July - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Scientific Advisory Board recommendations rejected. - . Nation: USA. Scientific Advisory Board recommendations differing from Teapot Committee rejected.

1954 Jul - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Western Development Division (WDD) established by USAF - . Related Persons: Power.

    By verbal orders of LtGeneral Thomas S. Power, Commander, ARDC, the Western Development Division (WDD), Headquarters ARDC, was established at 409 East Manchester Boulevard, Inglewood, California, under the command of Brigadier General Bernard A. Schriever. Headquarters ARDC General Order Number 42 confirmed LtGeneral Power's verbal orders of 1 July establishing the Western Development Division of Headquarters ARDC. Rocketdyne put on contract for Atlas engines.


1954 July 20 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Reorientation of the Atlas program - .

    The Air Force Atlas Scientific Advisory Committee (the former von Neumann Committee as reconstituted in April) met at the Western Development Division to discuss the reorientation of the Atlas program. The Committee expressed its dissatisfaction with Convair's lack of progress and noted some serious flaws in the company's technical and managerial approaches. After examining the project management structure proposed by WDD, the Committee unanimously concluded that it was weak and confused and that Convair was not strong enough to be given systems responsibility over the Atlas project. It was recommended that the project management structure, and especially Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation's role therein, be reevaluated and that a new, stronger approach be worked out. In addition, the Committee recommended that a second propulsion system contractor be introduced into the program as a back-up for North American.


1954 July 29 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Schriever assigned full authority for the Atlas project - . Related Persons: Schriever. Brigadier General Schriever was assigned full authority, responsibility, and accountability for the Atlas project and given status and prerogatives for a Deputy Commander, Air Research and Development.

1954 August - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • First USAF WDD Facility - . Nation: USA. Inglewood "Schoolhouse" WDD facility established.

1954 August 2 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • General Schriever in command of the Western Development Division - . Related Persons: Schriever. General Schriever personally assumed command of the Western Development Division, Headquarters ARDC..

1954 August 3 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Early action to accelerate the Atlas program. - . Western Development Division gave North American Aviation the go-ahead to proceed with their rocket development program, including engine test stand construction and erection of an engine pilot plant..

1954 August 6 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas contracting function colocated with Western Development Division. - .

    Headquarters Air Materiel Command (AMC) announced the establishment of the Special Aircraft Project Office (SAPO) under the command of Colonel Harold T. Morris. SAPO was to begin operations in Inglewood, California, on 15 August, and would perform all procurement and contracting functions for the Western Development Division.


1954 August 11 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • USAF issues GOR 21 for an intercontinental ballistic missile - .

    Headquarters USAF issued a "skeleton" general operational requirements, GOR Number 21 (SA-IC), for an intercontinental bombardment weapon system ballistic missile replacing the previous GOR Number 1. The weapon system to satisfy this GOR was expected to emerge from the redefinition and acceleration of the Atlas program.


1954 August 18 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Proposal that Ramo-Wooldridge manage the Atlas program. - . Related Persons: Schriever.

    After completing an evaluation of possible management approaches, a special WDD study group recommended to General Schriever that the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation manage the Atlas program. In this position, the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation would provide and be responsible for systems engineering and technical direction (SE/TD) for the entire Atlas project and for monitoring hardware development accomplished under Air Force contracts with industry.


1954 August 23 - . LV Family: Atlas, Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan I.
  • Atlas alternate propulsion system contractor. - . Related Persons: Schriever.

    General Schriever forwarded two important recommendations to Headquarters ARDC. First, he recommended that an alternate propulsion system contractor be introduced into the Atlas program as a back-up. Second, he presented the results of the Atlas management study of 18 August and recommended Ramo-Wooldridge for the SE/TD role in the project.


1954 September 8 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Technical direction functions for Project Atlas. - . Related Persons: Power.

    Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation selected to perform systems engineering and technical direction functions for Project Atlas. Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation selected to perform systems engineering and technical direction functions for Project Atlas. Following approval by General Power, ARDC Commander, and General E.W. Rawlings, AMC Commander, Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Materiel Roger Lewis approved the selection of the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation to perform systems engineering and technical direction functions for Project Atlas under the overall control of the Western Development Division.


1954 October 25 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Convair group to become the nucleus for the Atlas development team. - . Related Persons: Schriever.

    After further study, General Schriever recommended that the Convair program be continued because the company had the experience and could become the nucleus for the Atlas development team. Convair would handle airframe structural and aerodynamic aspects of the program along with the assembly of the vehicle and its components. The Western Development Division and the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation would provide SE/TD for the Atlas contractor.


1954 October 28 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Contract for development of the Atlas liquid oxygen/RP-1 rocket engine. - . Western Development Division and Special Aircraft Projects Office awarded a letter contract to North American Aviation for continued research and development of the liquid oxygen/RP-1 rocket engine..

Late 1954 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas further reduced in size - . Nation: USA. Atlas size reduced from 12-foot to 10-foot diameter, with 3 large engines.

1954 December - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas full-scale development - . Nation: USA. First major Atlas WS107A1 development and construction contract awarded Convair; CEP 2-3 NM, IOC by 1960-62.

1954 December 13 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas.
  • First production funding for Atlas. - . Air Force Procurement Authorization 54-GM-3 authorized $3.6 million in P-150 production funding for Atlas. This was the first production funding for Atlas..

1954 December 16 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas publicly announced. - . Nation: USA. USAF announced Atlas ICBM under construction by Convair..

1955 January 4 - . LV Family: Titan, Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Titan I.
  • Titan begins as alternate configuration and staging approach to the Atlas missile. - . The Air Force ICBM Scientific Advisory Committee recommended that an alternate configuration and staging approach to the present Atlas missile be introduced into the ballistic missile program..

1955 January 6 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Atlas contract award. - .

    A contract was awarded to the Convair Division of the General Dynamics Corporation for the development and fabrication of the Atlas (XSM-65) airframe and control system. Included were the integration and assembly of the various subsystems with the airframe and control system, and for checkout and testing.


1955 January 12 - . LV Family: Titan, Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Titan I.
  • Titan proposed as a competitor and backup to the Atlas program. - . Related Persons: Schriever. General Schriever formally proposed to Hq ARDC that an alternate, two-stage configuration intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) be developed as a competitor and backup to the Atlas program..

1955 January 14 - . LV Family: Atlas, Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan I.
  • Contract for Titan liquid oxygen-hydrocarbon ICBM engines. - .

    The Western Development Division (WDD) and the Special Aircraft Project Office (SAPO) awarded a contract to Aerojet-General Corporation for development of liquid oxygen-hydrocarbon ICBM engines. The contract covered design and fabrication of booster, sustainer, and vernier engines and was intended to provide an alternate propulsion system should the North American Aviation effort encounter delays.


1955 January 29 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Definitive to Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation for technical support for ICBMs. - .

    A formal, definitive contract between the Air Force and the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation fixed the firm's responsibility for systems engineering and technical direction (SE/TD) support for ICBMs. A formal, definitive contract between the Air Force and the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation fixed the firm's responsibility for systems engineering and technical direction (SE/TD) support for ICBMs.


1955 January 31 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • AVCO to conduct research on nose cones for missiles. - . The Western Development Division and the Special Aircraft Project Office selected AVCO Manufacturing to conduct research needed for the design of nose cones for missiles..

Early 1955 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas fabrication begins - . Nation: USA.

1955 February 14 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Contract for 12 propulsion systems for Atlas A. - . The Air Force awarded the Rocketdyne Division of North American Aviation a contract to fabricate and deliver 12 rocket engine propulsion systems for the Series A Atlas flight test missiles..

1955 February 16 - . LV Family: Atlas, Titan, . Launch Vehicle: Titan I.
  • Contract for ballisitc missile all-inertial guidance system. - . Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was awarded a contract for the research and development of an all-inertial guidance system. AC Spark Plug Company was to work with MIT and would fabricate and test the completed guidance system..

1955 February 24 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Radio guidance system for Atlas. - . The General Electric Company (GE) was given a contract to design, develop, and fabricate three complete ground-based tracking and command elements of the radio guidance system for Atlas..

1955 March 6 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas given top development priority. - . Nation: USA. USAF Chief of Staff, Nathan F. Twining, reported that ICBM's were receiving priority in the AF program because of known Soviet progress. Navaho, Snark, and Atlas programs accelerated..

1955 April - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • New WDD complex - . Nation: USA. New WDD complex activated on Arbor Vitae Blvd. in Los Angeles.

1955 April 12 - . LV Family: Atlas, Titan, .
  • Contract for all-inertial guidance for a ballistic missile. - . The Arma Division of American Bosch Arma Corporation received a contract to design, develop, fabricate, and test a complete airborne all-inertial guidance system for a ballistic missile system..

1955 April 21 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Development Plan for Atlas - . The Western Development Division published the first Development Plan for Atlas (WS107A)..

1955 May 25 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas.
  • Contract for a prototype nose cone for the Atlas. - . The Air Force awarded a contract to General Electric for research, design, and development of a prototype, full-scale nose cone for the Atlas reentry system..

1955 June 28 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas B.
  • Quarles Committee studies best method of furnishing the United States with a sattelite by end of 1958. - . Related Persons: Quarles, Schriever. Spacecraft Bus: Man-In-Space-Soonest. Spacecraft: Man-In-Space-Soonest, SCORE.

    Quarles Committee studies best method of furnishing the United States with a sattelite by end of 1958. A committee, appointed by Secretary of the Air Force, D. A. Quarles, to recommend the best method of furnishing the United States with a satellite between the dates of June and December 1958, was briefed at Western Development Division (WDD). The Atlas project was reviewed and the potential of Atlas as a booster vehicle in a selected satellite system was presented. The committee was advised that WDD was qualified to manage the program if so directed but that such a program would interfere, to some extent with the high priority of the Atlas development effort. (Memo, Col C. H. Terhune, Dep Cmdr Tech Opns, WDD, to Brig Gen B. A. Schriever, Cmdr WDD, 28 Jun 55, subj: Visit of DOD Satellite Committee, 28 Jun 55.)


1955 July 5 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Back-up reentry vehicle for Atlas. - . Western Development Division gave the AVCO Manufacturing Corporation a contract to research, design, and develop a second, or back-up, reentry vehicle (nose cone) prototype for Atlas..

1955 July 12 - . LV Family: Atlas, Titan, .
  • Requirement for an intercontinental ballistic missile. - . General Operational Requirement (GOR) Number 104 was issued for a long-range intercontinental ballistic missile..

1955 July 27 - . LV Family: Atlas, Titan, .
  • Maximum acceleration of the Atlas program. - . Development Directive 76 was issued for an ICBM weapon system. The directive called for maximum acceleration of the Atlas program and confirmed the assignment of the highest Air Force priority..

1955 July 28 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Eisenhower given a complete briefing on the Atlas. - . Related Persons: Schriever, Eisenhower.

    President Dwight D. Eisenhower and the National Security Council (NSC) were given a complete briefing on the Atlas program. Briefers were Assistant Secretary of the Air Force Trevor Gardner, Professor John von Neumann, and Brigadier General Bernard A. Schriever, Commander of the Western Development Division.


1955 September 8 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Eisenhower declared that the Atlas missile had the highest priority in the nation. - . Related Persons: , Eisenhower. President Eisenhower and the National Security Council (NSC) declared that the Atlas missile, Weapon System 107A-1, had the highest research and development priority in the nation..

1955 September 13 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas.
  • Acceleration of ballistic missile program. - . Related Persons: , Eisenhower.

    Trevor Gardner, Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development, requested that a working group be formed to evaluate the ballistic missile program. Such an evaluation was necessary to assure that the administrative management and control procedures of the program would allow the full project acceleration as directed by President Eisenhower and the National Security Council on 8 September. Accordingly, a committee was established under Hyde Gillette, Deputy for Budget and Program Management, to evaluate these procedures and to recommend means for reducing administrative delays that might impede attainment of the earliest possible operational capability of Atlas.


1955 Oct - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • First Atlas sustainer engine fired - . North American Aviation test fired the first 60,000-pound thrust Atlas sustainer engine..

Late 1955 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas program assigned top priority in the nation - . Nation: USA. Atlas program assigned top priority in the nation (was highest priority only for AF).

1955 November 8 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Gillette Committee report - .

    Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson approved the report of the Gillette Committee on simplifying administrative procedures for ICBM development programs. In accordance with the Committee's recommendations, Wilson established the Office of the Secretary of Defense Ballistic Missile Committee (OSD/BMC) with exclusive Department of Defense (DoD) authority to review and approve all ballistic missile program requirements. The existing Air Force ICBM Scientific Advisory Committee was also to advise the Secretary of Defense on ballistic missile matters. In addition, the Air Force was later authorized to undertake all actions necessary for the construction of ICBM operational bases.


1955 Dec - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Complete Atlas booster propulsion package fired for the first time. - . North American Aviation test fired the complete two-engine, 270,000-pound thrust Atlas booster propulsion package for the first time..

1955 December 1 - . LV Family: Titan, Atlas, Thor, Jupiter, . Launch Vehicle: Titan I.
  • Highest priority for both ICBMs and IRBMs. - . Related Persons: , Eisenhower. President Eisenhower officially assigned highest and equal priority to the development of the Atlas and Titan ICBMs and the Thor and Jupiter IRBMs. This decision led to the resignation of ICBM program advocate Gardner..

1955 December 14 - . LV Family: Atlas, Thor.
  • Thor given second priority after Atlas. - . Related Persons: Power.

    On the basis of the Hq USAF directive of 18 November, General Thomas S. Power, ARDC Commander, amended the Western Development Division's mission to include responsibility for ICBM initial operation capability (IOC) and for the development of IRBM Number 1 on a priority second only to that of the ICBM program.


1956 January 20 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • The Air Force ICBM Scientific Advisory Committee transferred to the Office of the Secretary of Defense. - .

    The Air Force ICBM Scientific Advisory Committee was transferred to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) to assure common interchange of technical information on all DoD missile programs. The Committee continued to act in an advisory capacity for the Western Development Division and the Air Force ballistic missile program.


1956 January 30 - . LV Family: Titan

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Miso soup with clams from a lake in western Japan's Shimane Prefecture that has the same name as the protagonist in the TV animation series "Neon Genesis Evangelion" is proving to be a hit, having gained attention via social networking services.

The ready-to-eat soup uses 50 grams of seasonal clams from Lake Shinji in the city of Matsue and its package shows an illustration of Shinji Ikari, the main character of Evangelion, standing in front of the lake.

(A packet of "Shijimi soup of Lake Shinji" with Lake Shinji in the background)

The item "Shijimi (clam) soup of Lake Shinji," priced at 410 yen ($3.7), was produced by the Shimane Art Museum and is on sale during a special exhibition of the Evangelion series at the facility through July 9 and online.

Soon after the soup went on sale in late April, it came under the spotlight via SNS, prompting the museum to double production from its initial plan.

"Some people come to Matsue just to buy the soup," said an official of the museum.

The Evangelion series, which began in 1995, features teenage pilots of cyborgs combating aliens.

==Kyodo

May 11, 2018 | KYODO NEWS

The MX ICBM-a $bn weapon system-is planned to carry a rela- tively large payload and to (c) non-nuclear detonation/burning of a nuclear weapon; (d) radioactive contamination; (e) Fast attack craft. Fighter-bomber.

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Atlas 2E missile, San Diego Aerospace Museum

FunctionIntercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)
ManufacturerConvair
Country of originUnited States
Size
Height75 ft 10 in (23.11 m)
85 ft 6 in (26.06 m) in ICBM configuration
Diameter10 ft (3.0 m)
Width16 ft (4.9 m)
Mass260,000 lb (117,900 kg)
Stages
Associated rockets
FamilyAtlas
Launch history
StatusRetired April 1965
Total launches24
Successes13
Failures11
First flight6 June 1957
Last flight24 August 1959
Boosters
No. boosters1
Engines2
Thrust300,000 lbf (1,300 kN)
Atlas D
Total thrust360,000 lbf (1,600 kN)
Atlas D
FuelRP-1/LOX
First stage
Engines1
Thrust60,000 lbf (270 kN)
Atlas D
FuelRP-1/LOX
Convair X-11 / SM-65 Atlas
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In service1959–1964
Used byUnited States Air Force
WarsCold War
Production history
ManufacturerConvair
Specifications
Mass255,950 lb (116,100 kg) for Atlas D w/o payload, 260,000 lb (117,900 kg) for Atlas D with Mk 2/3 RV and W49 warhead, 268,000 lb (121,560 kg) for Atlas E&F with Mk 4 RV and W38 warhead
Length75 ft 1 in (22.89 m) with Mk 2 re-entry vehicle, 82 ft 6 in (25.15 m) with Mk 3
Width16 ft 1 in (4.90 m) with Mk 2 re-entry vehicle, 82 ft 6 in (25.15 m) with Mk 3
Diameter10 ft 0 in (3.05 m)

Engine1 × Rocketdyne LR105 rocket engine, 1 × Rocketdyne XLR89 rocket engine with two 150,000 lbf (670 kN) thrust chambers (Atlas D), 2 × Rocketdyne LR101 vernier rocket engines with 1,000 lbf (4.4 kN) of thrust (propellant feed from LR105 sustainer engine turbopumps); 2 × LR89 booster engines (independent turbopumps) with 165,000 lbf (730 kN) (Atlas E&F)
57,000 lbf (250,000 N) thrust
AccuracyCEP 4,600 ft (1,400 m)
References
SM-65 Atlas
Service history
In service1959–1964
Production history
Designed1953 (XB-65)
Produced1959–1965
No. built350 (all versions)
Peak deployment level of 129
(30 D, 27 E, 72 F).
VariantsAtlas A, B/C, D, E/F (ICBMs)
SLV-3/3A/3C (NASA use)

The SM-65 Atlas was the first operational intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed by the United States and the first member of the Atlas rocket family. It was built for the U.S. Air Force by the Convair Division of General Dynamics at an assembly plant located in Kearny Mesa (north of San Diego). Atlas became operational as an ICBM in October 1959 and was quickly obsoleted by new development, being retired as a missile by 1965. However, Atlas-derived launch vehicles have a long history as space launchers.

Even before its ICBM use ended in 1965, Atlas had placed four Project Mercury astronauts in orbit and was becoming the foundation for a family of successful space launch vehicles, most notably Atlas Agena and Atlas Centaur. Mergers led to the acquisition of the Atlas Centaur line by the United Launch Alliance. Today ULA supports the larger Atlas V, which combines the unique and highly efficient Centaur upper stage with a new booster; until 2001, many of the retired Atlas ICBMs were refurbished and combined with upper stages to launch satellites.

History[edit]

Atlas was the first US ICBM and one of the first large liquid-fueled rockets; as such, its early development was quite chaotic, with plans changing rapidly as flight tests revealed issues.

Atlas got its start in 1946 with the award of an Army Air Forces research contract to Consolidated Vultee Aircraft (later Convair) for the study of a 1,500-to-5,000-mile (2,400 to 8,000 km) range missile that might at some future date carry a nuclear warhead; this MX-774 project was named for the Atlas of Greek mythology and the contractor's parent Atlas Corporation. At the time, the smallest atomic warheads were all larger than the maximum theoretical payloads of the planned long range missiles, so the contract was canceled in 1947, but the Army Air Forces allowed Convair to launch the three almost-completed research vehicles using the remaining contract funds; the three flights were only partially successful, but did show that balloon tanks and gimbaled rocket engines were valid concepts.[1]

A second development contract was awarded to Convair on 16 January 1951 for what was then called MX-1593, with a relatively low priority; the initial design completed by Convair in 1953 was larger than the missile that eventually entered service. Estimated warhead weight was lowered from 8,000 lb (3,630 kg) to 3,000 lb (1,360 kg) based on highly favorable U.S. nuclear warhead tests in early 1954. This, in addition to the Soviet Union's 1953 Joe 4 dry fuel thermonuclear weapon test and the CIA learning that the Soviet ICBM program was making progress, led to the project being dramatically accelerated. Atlas became a crash program of the highest national importance on 14 May 1954.[citation needed]

A major development and test contract was awarded to Convair on 14 January 1955 for a 10-foot (3 m) diameter missile to weigh about 250,000 lb (113,400 kg).[2] Atlas development was tightly controlled by the Air Force's Western Development Division, WDD, later part of the Air Force Ballistic Missile Division. Contracts for warhead, guidance and propulsion were handled separately by WDD; the first successful flight of a highly instrumented Atlas missile to full range occurred 28 November 1958. Atlas ICBMs were deployed operationally from 31 October 1959 to 12 April 1965.[3]

The missile was originally designated as the XB-65 experimental bomber; in 1955 it was redesignated SM-65 ("Strategic Missile 65") and, from 1962, it became CGM-16; this letter "C" stood for "coffin" or "Container", the rocket being stored in a semi-hardened container; it was prepared for launch by being raised and fueled in the open. The Atlas-F (HGM-16) was stored vertically underground, but launched after being lifted to the surface.[citation needed]

By 1965, with the second-generation Titan II having reached operational status, the Atlas was obsolete as a missile system and had been phased out of military use. Many of the retired Atlas D, E, and F missiles were used for space launches into the 1990s.[citation needed]

The penetrating lubricant WD-40 found its first use as a corrosion-inhibiting coating for the outer skin of the Atlas missile.[4]

Missile details[edit]

The Atlas's complicated, unconventional design proved difficult to debug compared with rocket families such as Thor and Titan which used conventional aircraft-style structures and two stage setups and there were dozens of failed launches during the early years. After watching an Atlas ICBM explode shortly after launch, Mercury astronaut Gus Grissom remarked "Are we really going to get on top of one of those things?" The numerous failures led to Atlas being dubbed an "Inter County Ballistic Missile" by missile technicians, but by 1965 most of the problems had been worked out and it was a reliable launch vehicle. Nearly every component in the Atlas managed to fail at some point during test flights, from the engine combustion chambers to the tank pressurization system to the flight control system, but Convair engineers noted with some pride that there had never been a repeat of the same failure more than three times, and every component malfunction on an Atlas flight was figured out and resolved; the last major design hurdle to overcome was unstable engine thrust, which caused three Atlas missiles to explode on their launching stands. It was solved with the use of baffled injectors and other modifications which would prove vital to the Saturn V program, as it used a first stage engine that was loosely derived from the Atlas booster engines.[citation needed]

Pressure stabilized tanks[edit]

Atlas was unusual in its use of balloon tanks for fuel, made of very thin stainless steel with minimal or no rigid support structures. Pressure in the tanks provides the structural rigidity required for flight. An Atlas rocket would collapse under its own weight if not kept pressurized, and had to have 5 psi (34 kPa) nitrogen in the tank even when not fueled;[5] the only other known use of balloon tanks at the time of writing is the Centaur high-energy upper stage, although some rockets (such as the Falcon series) use partially pressure-supported tanks. The rocket had two small thrust chambers on the sides of the tank called vernier rockets; these provided fine adjustment of velocity and steering after the sustainer engine shut down.

'Stage-and-a-half'[edit]

Atlas was informally classified as a "stage-and-a-half" rocket, with a central sustainer engine and set of two booster engines that were all started at launch, each drawing from a single set of propellant tanks. Most multistage rockets drop both engines and fuel tanks simultaneously before firing the next stage's engines. However, when the Atlas missile was being developed, there was doubt as to whether a rocket engine could be air-started. Therefore, the decision was made to ignite all of the Atlas' engines at launch; the booster engines would be discarded, while the sustainer continued to burn. A "stage" of a liquid propellant rocket normally consists of both propellant tanks and engines, so jettisoning one or more engines only is equivalent to "half a stage". At staging, the booster engines would be shut off and a series of mechanical and hydraulic mechanisms would close the plumbing lines to them; the booster section would then be released by a series of hydraulic clamps (aside from the early test model Atlas B, which used explosive bolts) and slide off the missile. From there on, the sustainer and verniers would operate by themselves. Booster staging took place at roughly two minutes into launch, although the exact timing could vary considerably depending on the model of Atlas as well as the particular mission being flown; this "stage-and-a-half" design was made possible by the extremely light weight of the balloon tanks. The tanks made up such a small percentage of the total booster weight that the mass penalty of lifting them to orbit was less than the technical and mass penalty required to throw half of them away mid-flight. However, technology advanced quickly and not long after design work on Atlas was completed, Convair rival Martin proposed a solution to the air-starting problem, their Titan I missile, developed as an Atlas backup, had a conventional two stage design.[citation needed]

Comparison with R-7[edit]

The R-7 Semyorka was the first Soviet ICBM and similarly started all engines before launch to avoid igniting a large liquid fuel engine at high altitudes. However, the R-7 had a central sustainer section, with four boosters attached to its sides; the large side boosters required use of an expensive launch pad and prevented launching the rocket from a silo. Like the Atlas, the use of cryogenicliquid oxygen meant that the missile could not be kept in the state of flight readiness indefinitely and was largely useless for its intended purpose.

The R-7 was similarly developed into a space launch vehicle, initially delivering Sputnik and Vostok into orbit; the Soyuz rocket is descended from the R-7 and remains in use today.[citation needed]

Engines[edit]

The booster engine consisted of two large thrust chambers. On the Atlas A/B/C, one turbopump assembly powered both booster engines. On the Atlas D, the booster engines had separate pump assemblies. On the Atlas E/F, each booster turbopump also got its own gas generator. Later space launcher variants of the Atlas used the MA-5 propulsion system with twin turbopumps on each booster engine, driven by a common gas generator; the boosters were more powerful than the sustainer engine and did most of the lifting for the first two minutes of flight. In addition to pitch and yaw control, they could also perform roll control in the event of a vernier failure; the sustainer engine on all Atlas variants consisted of a single thrust chamber with its own turbopump and gas generator, and two small pressure-fed vernier engines. The verniers provided roll control and final velocity trim; the total sea level thrust of all five thrust chambers was 360,000 lbf (1,600 kN) for a standard Atlas D. Atlas E/F had 375,000 pounds of thrust. Total sea level thrust for these three-engine Atlas Es and Fs was 389,000 lbf (1,730 kN).[citation needed] Space launcher variants of the Atlas often had performance enhancements to the engines.[citation needed]

Guidance[edit]

The Atlas missiles A through D used radio guidance: the missile sent information from its inertial system to a ground station by radio, and received course correction information in return; the Atlas E and F had completely autonomous inertial guidance systems.

Warhead[edit]

The warhead of the Atlas D was originally the G.E. Mk 2 "heat sink" re-entry vehicle (RV) with a W49thermonuclear weapon, combined weight 3,700 lb (1,680 kg) and yield of 1.44 megatons (Mt). The W49 was later placed in a Mk 3 ablative RV, combined weight 2,420 lb (1,100 kg); the Atlas E and F had an AVCO Mk 4 RV containing a W38thermonuclear bomb with a yield of 3.75 Mt which was fuzed for either air burst or contact burst. The Mk 4 RV also deployed penetration aids in the form of mylar balloons which replicated the radar signature of the Mk 4 RV; the Mk 4 plus W-38 had a combined weight of 4,050 lb (1,840 kg). The Atlas missile's warhead was over 100 times more powerful than the bomb dropped over Nagasaki in 1945.[citation needed]

Missile versions[edit]

SM-65A Atlas[edit]

Main article: SM-65A Atlas

The ConvairX-11/SM-65A Atlas/Atlas A was the first full-scale prototype of the Atlas missile, first flying on 11 June 1957.[6] It was a test model designed to verify the structure and propulsion system, and had no sustainer engine or separable stages; the first three Atlas A launches used an early Rocketdyne engine design with conical thrust chambers and only 135,000 pounds of thrust. By the fourth Atlas test, they were replaced by an improved engine design that had bell-shaped thrust chambers and 150,000 pounds of thrust.

The Atlas A conducted eight test flights in 1957–1958, of which four were successful. All test flights were conducted from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, at either Launch Complex 12 or Launch Complex 14.[6] Atlas A flights were powered by a single engine consisting of two large thrust chambers fed by a single set of turbopumps.[citation needed]

SM-65B Atlas[edit]

Main article: SM-65B Atlas

The Convair X-12/SM-65B was the second, more advanced testbed for the Atlas rocket program. The SM-65B pioneered the use of the stage and a half rocket engines that became a hallmark of the Atlas rocket program and was also the first rocket to achieve a flight distance that could be considered intercontinental when it flew 6,325 miles (10,180 km).[citation needed]

This was followed by the Atlas B and C in 1958–1959; the B had full engines and booster engine staging capability. The MA-1 engine system, used on both the Atlas B and Atlas C, consisted of the booster engine used on the predecessor X-11 plus a sustainer engine. MA-1 was the direct predecessor of the MA-2 engine system of Atlas D which in turn was the direct predecessor of the MA-5 engine system used in Atlas Agena and Atlas Centaur launch vehicles.[citation needed]

The Atlas B was first flown on 19 July 1958, with ten total flights. Nine of these were sub-orbital test flights of the Atlas as an Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, with five successful missions and four failures. All launches were conducted from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, at Launch Complexes 11, 13 and 14.[6]

SM-65C Atlas[edit]

Main article: SM-65C Atlas

The SM-65C Atlas, or Atlas C was a prototype of the Atlas missile.

The C was a more refined model with improved, lighter-weight components and a bigger LOX tank and smaller fuel tank. First flown on 24 December 1958, it was the final development version of the Atlas rocket, prior to the operational Atlas D, it was originally planned to be used as the first stage of the Atlas-Able rocket, but following an explosion during a static test on 24 September 1959, this was abandoned in favor of the Atlas D.[citation needed] Six flights were made, all sub-orbital test flights of the Atlas as an Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, with three tests succeeding, and three failing.[citation needed] All launches were conducted from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, at Launch Complex 12.[citation needed]

SM-65D Atlas[edit]

Main article: SM-65D Atlas

The SM-65D Atlas, or Atlas D, was the first operational version of the Atlas missile and the basis for all Atlas space launchers, debuting in 1959.[7] Atlas D weighed 255,950 lb (116,100 kg) (without payload) and had an empty weight of only 11,894 lb (5,395 kg), the other 95.35% was propellant. Dropping the 6,720 lb (3,048 kg) booster engine and fairing reduced the dry weight to 5,174 lb (2,347 kg), a mere 2.02% of the initial gross weight of the vehicle (still excluding payload). This very low dry weight allowed Atlas D to send its thermonuclear warhead to ranges as great as 9,000 miles (14,500 km) or orbit payloads without an upper stage.[8]

It first flew on 14 April 1959. To provide the United States with an interim or emergency ICBM capability, in September 1959 the Air Force deployed three SM-65D Atlas missiles on open launch pads at Vandenberg AFB, California, under the operational control of the 576th Strategic Missile Squadron, 704th Strategic Missile Wing. Completely exposed to the elements, the three missiles were serviced by a gantry crane. One missile was on operational alert at all times, they remained on alert until 1 May 1964.[citation needed]

SM-65E Atlas[edit]

Main article: SM-65E Atlas

The SM-65E Atlas, or Atlas-E, was the first 3-engine operational variant of the Atlas missile, the third engine resulting from splitting the two booster thrust chambers into separate engines with independent sets of turbopumps. It first flew on 11 October 1960, and was deployed as an operational ICBM from September 1961 until March 1965.[9]

The final variants of the Atlas ICBM were the E and F, introduced in 1960–61. E and F had fully self-contained inertial navigation systems (INS) and were nearly identical to each other except for interfaces associated with their different basing modes (underground silo for F) and the fuel management system.[10]

A major enhancement in the Atlas E was the new all-inertial system that obviated the need for ground control facilities. Since the missiles were no longer tied to a central guidance control facility, the launchers could be dispersed more widely in what was called a 1 × 9 configuration, with one missile silo located at one launch site each for the 9 missiles assigned to the squadron.[citation needed]

Atlas-E launches were conducted from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, at Launch Complexes 11 and 13, and Vandenberg Air Force Base at Vandenberg AFB Operational Silo Test Facility, Vandenberg AFB Launch Complex 576 and Vandenberg AFB Space Launch Complex 3.[6]

SM-65F Atlas[edit]

Main article: SM-65F Atlas

The SM-65F Atlas, or Atlas-F, was the final operational variant of the Atlas missile. It first flew on 8 August 1961, and was deployed as an operational ICBM between September 1962 and April 1965.

The Atlas F was the final and most advanced version of the Atlas ICBM and was essentially a quick-firing version of the Atlas E, modified to be stored in a vertical position inside underground concrete and steel silos; when stored, the Atlas F sat atop an elevator. If a missile was placed on alert, it was fueled with RP-1 (kerosene) liquid fuel, which could be stored inside the missile for extended periods. If a decision was made to launch the missile, it was fueled with liquid oxygen. Once the liquid oxygen fueling was complete, the elevator raised the missile to the surface for launching.[citation needed]

This method of storage allowed the Atlas F to be launched in about ten minutes, a saving of about five minutes over the Atlas D and Atlas E, both of which were stored horizontally and had to be raised to a vertical position before being fueled.[citation needed]

Atlas-F launches were conducted from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, at Launch Complexes 11 and 13, and Vandenberg Air Force Base at OSTF-2, Vandenberg AFB Launch Complex 576 and Vandenberg AFB Space Launch Complex 3.[6]

Operational deployment[edit]

Strategic Air Command deployed 11 operational Atlas ICBM squadrons between 1959 and 1962; each of the three missile variants, the Atlas D, E, and F series, were deployed and based in progressively more secure launchers.

Service history[edit]

The number of Atlas intercontinental ballistic missiles in service, by year: CGM-16D Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles assigned:

  • 1959: 6
  • 1960: 12
  • 1961: 32
  • 1962: 32
  • 1963: 28
  • 1964: 13

CGM-16E Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles assigned:

  • 1961: 32
  • 1962: 32
  • 1963: 33
  • 1964: 30

HGM-16F Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles assigned:

  • 1961: 1
  • 1962: 80
  • 1963: 79
  • 1964: 75

Atlas-D deployment[edit]

In September 1959 the first operational Atlas ICBM squadron went on operational alert at F.E. Warren AFB, Wyoming equipped with six SM-65D Atlas missiles based in above-ground launchers. Three additional Atlas D squadrons, two near F.E. Warren AFB, Wyoming, and one at Offutt AFB, Nebraska, were based in above-ground launchers that provided blast protection against over-pressures of only 5 pounds per square inch (34 kPa); these units were:

Francis E. Warren AFB, Wyoming (2 September 1960 – 1 July 1964)
564th Strategic Missile Squadron (6 missiles)
565th Strategic Missile Squadron (9 missiles)
Offutt AFB, Nebraska (30 March 1961 – 1 October 1964)
549th Strategic Missile Squadron (9 missiles)

The first site at Warren for the 564th SMS consisted of six launchers grouped together, controlled by two launch operations buildings, and clustered around a central guidance control facility; this was called the 3 × 2 configuration: two launch complexes of three missiles each constituted a squadron.[citation needed]

At the second Warren site for the 565th SMS and at Offutt AFB, Nebraska, for the 549th SMS, the missiles were based in a 3 x 3 configuration: three launchers and one combined guidance control/launch facility constituted a launch complex, and three complexes comprised a squadron. At these later sites the combined guidance and control facility measured 107 by 121 ft (33 by 37 m) with a partial basement. A dispersal technique of spreading the launch complexes were 20 to 30 miles (30 to 50 km) apart was also employed to reduce the risk that one powerful nuclear warhead could destroy multiple launch sites.[citation needed]

Atlas-E deployment[edit]

The SM-65E Atlas were based in horizontal "semi-hard" or "coffin" facilities that protected the missile against over-pressures up to 25 psi (170 kPa). In this arrangement the missile, its support facilities, and the launch operations building were housed in reinforced concrete structures that were buried underground; only the roofs protruded above ground level; these units were:[citation needed]

Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington (28 September 1961 – 17 February 1965)
567th Strategic Missile Squadron, (9 missiles)
Forbes AFB, Kansas (10 October 1961 – 4 January 1965)
548th Strategic Missile Squadron, (9 missiles)
Francis E. Warren AFB, Wyoming (20 November 1961 – 4 January 1965)
566th Strategic Missile Squadron (9 missiles)

Atlas-F deployment[edit]

The six SM-65F Atlas squadrons were the first ICBMs to be stored vertically in underground silos. Built of heavily reinforced concrete, the huge silos were designed to protect the missiles from over-pressures of up to 100 psi (690 kPa).[citation needed]

Retirement as an ICBM[edit]

After the solid-fuelLGM-30 Minuteman had become operational in early 1963, the Atlas became rapidly obsolete. By October 1964, all Atlas D missiles had been phased out, followed by the Atlas E/F in April 1965. About 350 Atlas ICBMs of all versions were built, with a peak deployment level of 129 (30 D, 27 E, 72 F). Despite its relatively short life span, Atlas served as the proving ground for many new missile technologies. Perhaps more importantly, its development spawned the organization, policies, and procedures that paved the way for all of the later ICBM programs.

After its retirement from operational ICBM service in 1965, the ICBMs were refurbished and used for close to forty years as space launch vehicle boosters.

Atlas-A to -C launch history[edit]

(SM-65A)
Date
Time
(GMT)
Pad Serial ApogeeOutcome
1957-06-11 19:37 LC-14 4A 2 km (1.2 mi) Failure
1957-09-25 19:57 LC-14 6A 3 km (1.9 mi) Failure
1957-12-17 17:39 LC-14 12A 120 km (75 mi) Success
1958-01-10 15:48 LC-12 10A 120 km (75 mi) Success
1958-02-07 19:37 LC-14 13A 120 km (75 mi) Failure
1958-02-20 17:46 LC-12 11A 90 km (56 mi) Failure
1958-04-05 17:01 LC-14 15A 100 km (62 mi) Success
1958-06-03 21:28 LC-12 16A 120 km (75 mi) Success
(SM-65B)
Date
Time
(GMT)
Pad Serial ApogeeOutcome Remarks
1958-07-1917:36LC-113B 10 km (6.2 mi) Failure
1958-08-02 22:16 LC-13 4B 900 km (560 mi) Success
1958-08-29 04:30 LC-11 5B 900 km (560 mi) Success
1958-09-14 05:24 LC-14 8B 900 km (560 mi) Success
1958-09-18 21:27 LC-13 6B 100 km (62 mi) Failure
1958-11-18 04:00 LC-11 9B 800 km (500 mi) Failure
1958-11-29 02:27 LC-14 12B 900 km (560 mi) Success First full-range test flight
1958-12-18 22:02 LC-11 10B N/A Success Placed SCORE satellite
into 185 km (115 mi) x
1,484 km (922 mi) x 32.3° orbit
1959-01-16 04:00 LC-14 13B 100 km (62 mi) Failure
1959-02-04 08:01 LC-11 11B 900 km (560 mi) Success
(SM-65C)
Date
Time
(GMT)
Serial ApogeeOutcome
1958-12-2404:453C 900 km (560 mi) Success
1959-01-2723:344C 900 km (560 mi) Failure
1959-02-2005:385C 100 km (62 mi) Failure
1959-03-1900:597C 200 km (120 mi) Failure
1959-07-2105:228C 900 km (560 mi) Success
1959-08-2415:5311C 900 km (560 mi) Success

Survivors[edit]

  • HGM-16F Atlas is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. For years the missile was displayed outside the museum. In 1998 it was removed from display, it was restored by the museum's restoration staff and returned to display in the museum's new Missile Silo Gallery in 2007. The white nose cone atop the museum's Atlas is an AVCO IV re-entry vehicle built to contain a nuclear warhead; this nose cone actually stood alert in defense of the United States, as it was initially installed on an Atlas on 2 October 1962 at a Denton Valley launch site near Clyde, Texas.
  • Atlas 8A is displayed in front of the Strategic Air Command & Aerospace Museum in Ashland, Nebraska; reconfigured as an Atlas D.
  • Atlas 2E is on display in front of the San Diego Air & Space Museum at Gillespie Field, El Cajon, California.
  • Atlas 2D mounted with a Mercury capsule is on display in the Rocket Garden at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Merritt Island, Florida.

Former survivor:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

Launch of an Atlas B ICBM
SM-65 Atlas deployment sites:  SM-65D (Red), SM-65E (Purple), SM-65F (Black)
Atlas-D ICBM launching from semi-hardened "coffin" bunker at Vandenberg AFB, California.
1965 graph of Atlas launches, cumulative by month with failures highlighted (pink) along with USAF Titan II and NASA use of ICBM boosters for Projects Mercury and Gemini (blue). Apollo–Saturn history and projections shown as well.

Convair XSM-65A being launched

Convair XSM-65B being launched

Atlas C missile sitting on its launch pad, 1957/58

Launch of an SM-65E Atlas

Launch of an SM-65F Atlas

  1. ^RTV-A-2 Hiroc[1][2]
  2. ^Dennis R. Jenkins, "Stage-and-a-Half, The Atlas Launch Vehicle", To Reach the High Frontier (University Press of Kentucky, 2002) pp. 74–85
  3. ^Mike Gruntman, Blazing the Trail, pp. 221–245, AIAA, Reston Virginia, 2004
  4. ^"Our History". WD-40. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014.
  5. ^John Pike. "SM-65 Atlas – United States Nuclear Forces". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  6. ^ abcde"Encyclopedia Astronautica – Atlas A". Astronautix.com. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  7. ^Andreas Parsch, "Atlas D, Historical Essay", Encyclopedia Astronautica, 2003
  8. ^M. D. Black, The Evolution of ROCKET TECHNOLOGY, p. 54, Native Planter, SLC, 2012, payloadz.com under ebook/History
  9. ^James N. Gibson, Nuclear Weapons of the United States, An Illustrated History, pp. 11–14, Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Atglen, PA, 1996
  10. ^

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