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October 13, 2018 Family Restaurants 4 comments

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Well Water Storage Systems

A Poly-Mart 2500 Water Storage Tank is a great tank choice for the majority of guns be allowed on college campuses essayhow to write a book bookgogoessay on natural disasters in japanethics essay examples altitude sicknessonline help trig homeworkessay cyber crimesourcecomputer science resume objective examplesseeclick heresample research papers apa styleproblem research topicsbest uk essay writing servicethesis for bullying laws of poultry broiler business planfollow link to linkhere resume writing servicephotography business owner resume phrases to begin an essaysource url Well Water Storage Systems! In rural areas where a municipal water supply is not available, a well is generally drilled for your water supply. A more modern application that has a growing popularity is Well Water Storage Systems. Almost every home with a well has a pressure tank, however not every home with a well has a Well Water Storage System. Traditional Well Systems work by storing pre-pumped water in a pressure tank. Pressure Tanks usually range in between 20 and 60 gallons.  Unfortunately, people often use more than 60 gallons at a time, and so the pump must run quite often to keep a consistent water pressure going to the home.  Well Storage Systems carry numerous advantages over the traditional water well applications and one of the big differences is that there is an above ground storage tank with a bulk amount of well water stored inside. The well water is then pumped through a filtration system with a surface pump (either a jet pump, booster pump or on-demand pump).

10 Reasons you should you have a Well Water Storage System

  • Larger availability of usable water above ground at home
  • Increases the life of your well pump by cycling it less
  • More efficient water pressure since so much water is stored above ground
  • Added fire protection for your home & property since so much water is stored above ground
  • There could be a property tax savings for adding a fire hose adapter to your tank
  • Water availability during power outages
  • Place your tank uphill from your home and gravity flow water indoors during a power outage
  • Tank allows sediments to settle at the bottom & pump from cleaner water, increasing the life of filters
  • Tank allows the off-gassing of sulfur through the vent in the tank lid so you don’t smell it indoors
  • If your well runs dry, you have a tank to accept a potable drinking water delivery in

One of the biggest differences between a traditional well water application and a well water storage system is the capacity. While pressure tanks only store 20 gallons to 60 gallons, Well Water Storage Systems usually store around 2500 gallons. Having at least 2500 gallons of water pumped and stored above ground in a Water Storage Tank relieves the amount of times in which your well pump has to cycle, saving energy and the life of your well pump that’s down in the ground. Well pumps are installed several hundred feet in-ground, so you don’t want to have to pay for pump maintenance. If you only have an average sized pressure tank (40 to 50 Gallons) and you have a dishwasher and shower running at the same time, you will almost certainly trigger your well pump to turn on. Starting and stopping a well pump over time can be very hard on it. If you control how many times your pump cycles, you will increase the life of your well pump and have a more efficient system. Well Water Storage Systems have float switches installed inside the Water Storage Tank which means your well pump will start & stop once the tank reaches your desired level, reducing stress on the well.  Utilizing a Well Water Storage System, you can count on water pressure that won’t sputter or lag on you when you really need it giving you the reliability & dependability of City Water.

Used as a buffer in high demand times, this Well Water Storage System is used to power a Commercial Irrigation system in Round Rock, TX

Well Water Storage Systems also enable the sulfuric gases commonly found in well water to be released, which greatly limits well water odor. Due to pressure tanks being fully enclosed, air can’t escape from the tank, therefore making the sulfuric gases remain in the water lines until it’s released at your water faucet. Have you ever wondered why well water can smell? Poly-Mart Water Storage Tanks come with lids that have vents built-in. The vents release the gases as soon as the water is pumped in the Well Water Storage Tank, limiting the odor in the water.

Well Water Storage Systems can also benefit you in power outages. Do you have a well and have lost your water supply when you had a power outage? Obviously without power, your pump will not function. With a Well Water Storage System, placement of your tank is very important. If the tank is placed at a higher elevation than the house, you will have the remaining water in your tank available to be gravity fed into the house. Although gravity fed water may not be at your desired pressure, still having water available in times like these is what’s most important. Also consider placing your tank in the shade. During summer months, water in your tank can increase in temperature.  Although every house has a water heater, they usually aren’t equipped with something to cool down the water before entering the house. Do you live in a hot climate and want a tank that can keep your storage water cooler? Check out our 2500 Gallon SunShield Water Storage Tank. This is the most advanced Polyethylene Water Storage Tank on the market today and comes with a 10-Year Warranty! Testing from Texas A&M University proves these tanks (in our Arctic White colors) can keep your stored Well Water up to 14 degree’s cooler during the hottest time of the day.

Why use a Poly-Mart 2500 for your Well Storage System?

  • Exceeds durability & toughness standards your Well Company wants to have in a tank they are installing
  • Our Dark Green & Black colors allow Zero UV Light to penetrate the tank. Algae-Free!
  • Poly-Mart 2500’s have multiple flat spots letting you enter & exit the tank where you really need
  • Your tank can be ordered with Upgraded Fittings and Lids
  • Poly-Mart Tanks carry a 5 Year Warranty
  • Poly-Mart SunShield Water Storage Tanks carry an Industry leading 10-Year Warranty

Poly-Mart is a Water Storage Tank manufacturer that has a stock yard, distributor or has the ability to drop ship to any of the following states:

Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Bahamas, Puerto Rico

Well Water Storage Systems

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The Cynegeticus of the Younger Xenophon

by Cappelli

The Cynegeticus of the Younger Xenophon. Author: Lucius Flavius Arrianus [Ἀρριανός] (ca. 86 – post 146) || Translator: William Dansey (Blandford, Dorset, 1792 – 7 June 1856, Weymouth, Dorset) || Publication Data: London, 1831 || Ex libris: Charles Anthon... More

The Cynegeticus of the Younger Xenophon. Author: Lucius Flavius Arrianus [Ἀρριανός] (ca. 86 – post 146) || Translator: William Dansey (Blandford, Dorset, 1792 – 7 June 1856, Weymouth, Dorset) || Publication Data: London, 1831 || Ex libris: Charles Anthon (New York, New York, 19 November 1797 – 29 July 1867, 12 East 37th Street, New York, New York) || For best viewing, download PDF. Less

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5K 113/ The Amnon Libi\ary, COLLECTED BY CHARLES ANTHON, Professor of" Gi-reek and tiatin in Colixmbia College. Purchased Inj Cornell University, 1868.

»1 Cornell University Library The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. http://www. archive. org/details/cu31924012419879


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atJKi-Ui, aneum; PREFACE. Nee desinat unqtiam Tecum Giaia loqui tecum Koinana vetuatas. — Claudian. The following version does not aim at pleasing the mere literary man. It was not undertaken with the ambitious expectation of being generally acceptable. It is addressed to the coursing public alone—to the amateurs of the leash ; for whom the original was written, seventeen centuries ago, . by their representative of old, a courser of Nicomedia in Asia Minor ; and for whose amusement and instruction the same now assumes an English garb. The general reader will find little in it to interest him. He will perhaps consider it altogether unworthy of his notice. The sportsman, fond of the musical confasion Of hounds and echo in conjunction, will read it with indifference, as treating of a branch of rural sport, not congenial to his taste ; and wonder that an attempt should be made to bring under public notice so ancient a treatise on a subject of such partial interest. But the courser, A

2 PREFACE. it is humbly conceived, the active patron of the xu vsj KsXrixa), proud of his greyhounds, that are as swift As breathed atags, aye fleeter than the roe, will peruse it con amore, and find in its pages much that is entertaining and practically useful, and that utihty enhanced in the department of annotation. The literary courser, v^hose attention it more particularly solicits, vnll reap the additional benefit of the light which is thrown on Arrian s text by the ancient authors of Greece and Rome ; and be ready to yield to the translator the humble merit of having collected in one point of view the classical elucidations of the Cynegeticus,^ and the pertinent observations of writers of a later period. Pro captu lectoris habent sua fata libelli ! The original manual is conversant with coursing, as practised in the age of Hadrian and the Antonini, at which period the Celtic hound was well known, and highly prized : but the annotations of the translator have a more extensive range, being selected from various Cynegetica in print and manuscript, from the first institution of coursing to the present time. ^ 1. The editors of the Greek libellus confine their remarks almost exclusively to critical annotations on the text. Indeed Holstein s edition has no notes ; Blancard s, only a few marginal emendations; and Zeune s and Schneider s, -very few parallel passages. Such classical citations, therefore, as are adduced by the translator, are for the most part of novel application. 2. The quotations from the Cynegeticus of Xenophon the elder refer to the chasepractices and kennel -discipline of Greece, antecedent to the institution of coursing.

PREFACE. J The imperfect poem of Gratius, the Faliscian, on hunting, Gratii Falisci Cyneg. vs. 203. and the often-cited simile of his contemporary Ovid, afford Ovid. Metam. L. I. vs. 533. et the earhest notice of the canis Gallicus —for he was unknown L. vn. vs. 78i. to ancient Greece. ^ The description of a single-handed course by the poet of the Metamorphoses, as it is the first attempt of the kind by any classic author, so is it unrivalled in the accuracy of its technical phraseology, and the beauty of its poetry. Intermediate in point of time between the vivid Ovidian sketch, and the full and perfect picture of Arrian, are the faint outlines of the epigrammatist Martial: and Martial. L. m. Epig. 47. et subsequent to the Bithynian s, the somewhat doubtful por- L- xiv. Epig. trait of the philologist Julius Pollux, presented to the Emperor PoUuc. Onomast. L. v. Prffif. Commodus ; and yet later, that of Oppian, the Greek poet Oppian. Cyneg. L. I. vs. 401. of Anazarbus, of the reigns of Severus and Caracalla. — 1. This statement is limited to classical authors alone ; the Bihlical scholar might possibly arraign its accuracy, if made more general ; though it scarce needs qualification to suit the doubtful interpretation of the Hebrew text of Proverbs ch. xxx. ver. 31 . No allusion occurring elsewhere in the sacred volume to dogs of the chase, though many to the earlier varieties of Venation with predatory instruments, it is improbable that the words of Agur to his pupils Ithiel and Ucal should refer to the most uncommon of the canine tribe, the canis Leporarius, Gallicus, or Verlragus. The Hebrew expression, however, for " accinctus lumbis," " girt in the loins," as explained in Bocharti Hie. , 1 , T • , , . , . rozoic. L. II. u. the margin of the English version, is understood by J ewish lexicographers to desig- j^^ j nate the greyhound, and is so rendered in the English text. But with the learned Bochart (Praefat. ad Lectorem—wherein he corrects a few errors of the body of his work, and gives his latest and most mature opinions on certain Scriptural difficulties —a part of his writings apparently overlooked by modem annotators, to the farther propagation of error) I should rather understand the horse to be the animal alluded to " equum intelligi malim, qui non soliim expedite, sed et superbe, et cum pomp^ Ejusdem PrsquSldam incedit: et lumbos habet cinguU vel zon^ vere succinctos. Quod an de lat. adLectorem. cane dici possit valde ambigo. " After all, perhaps, no particular animal may have been intended by the son of Jakeh. The term may have a general reference to any animal of the frame alluded to —" substricta gerens—ilia — " The chapter containing Ovid. Metam. the passage in question is not found in the Septuagint; indeed the Greek version of " • the LXX. terminates with the 29th chapter.

PREFACE. In these authors alone do we find any allusion to the courser s hound, till towards the close of the third century, when he Nemesian. Cy- again appears in the Cynegeticon of Nemesian; who has reg. ™. 100. & ft ! <= J. c \,cleverly struck out in a few lines the elegant symmetry ot tiis shape, and added thereto some peculiar remarks on the selection, feeding, and entrance of puppies. With the scanty portraiture of the Carthaginian poet we are brought down to the Ejusd. vs. 64. reigns of Carus, his sons, " Divi fortissima pignora Cari," and Diocletian : at which epoch, memorable alike in the annals of the world and its literature, the classical history of the leash may be said to terminate, and therewith all notice of the Celtic hound. We have no ancient records of tJie chase ^ to succeed the 1. In the 27th oration of Themistius, the eclectic philosopher of Paphlagonia, a passage occurs, which, as far as merely mentioning Celtic dogs by name, may be said to prolong the notice to the fourth century. The whole passage, as illustrative of the author s subject, " non Iqca attendenda sed homines," is curious and worthy of Themistii Oral, citation — So-tis Se ayair^ jcvpas, Toira: Tpo<rd>iXts liiv m-^/ua, Kol KeATOi, Kol AcS/coiKoi XXVII. (XKihaKes- SdKvet Si aMv Kol ri KaaroplSuv ipiAov, Kol xb ApKoSiKhv aiirh, Kol rb KpijTmbc, ah (piais rSv 6nplai/ 4\4yxf^i Tar tvi/as koto r^v iSic iwuriroinivats. ov iropiiifieTCH Se ouSe rhs oIkol (ncvXajc^vSelcras, el fi^re k6J\. Kovs eKehtiiv idyn axiniTos XeiTToii To. In favour of the greyhound being here cited, it may be remarked that the Bith ynian courser calls the Celtic dog iiiya Kx^jia (cap. xxxii. ) and his shape KaK6v Ti xprifiaj and derives his name dirb t^s wKiSrijTffS, as the characteristic distinction of tlie race. See some remarks on the " Canes Scolici " of Symniachus hereafter. 2. The Cynosophiura alone, a Greek work " de Cur^ Canura," breaks the silence of many centuries. It is supposed to have been compiled, about the year 1270, bj Demetrius of Constantinople, author of the first treatise " de Re AccipitrariSl," and physician to the Emperor Michael Falaeologus. To what is borrowed from the two Xenophons, nothing is added of novelty or interest, save in the department of canine pathology ; indeed it is almost entirely confined to kennel-management and therapeutics. No notice is taken of any variety of dog by name. The reader, who may wish to consult its medical nostroms, will find the treatise attached to the " Rei AccipitrarisB Scriptores of Rigaltius (Lutetia; mdcxii. ) and to the " Poetae Venatici" of Johnson (Londini mdcxcix. ).

PREFACE. Greek and Latin Cynegetica ; for though it be true that the barbarian codes of law, the Sahc, Burgundian, and German, Spelman. Gloss. b pp. 113. et extended their protection to our variety of Canis Venaticus, G^ioaj^jn ^°e^* about the year 500, under the title of Veltris and its synonyms ; and some of the Cynegetical writers appear to have been well knovra in the dark ages, and so highly valued in the eighth century, as to be read among the higher Greek and Roman classics, in the time of Charlemagne ; and we believe coursing and other sports were as attractive in the field, as the writers upon such subjects were in the schools, (for the court of this prince had its Veltrarii, officers of the greyhound-kennel, " qui voce. veltres custodiebant,") still, instead of any formal treatise of this date upon the pastime of the leash, we find for several centuries, only incidental allusions to the greyhound, and his high repute, principally as distinctive of the gentility of his possessor, until the publication of " The Booke of Hawkyng, Huntyng, &c. " by Dame Juliana Berners, in the fifteenth century. The didactic discourse of hunting, contained in this volume, Haslewood s commonly known by its territorial appellation of " The Book Prolegomena to • ^ ^^ Book of St. Alof St. Albans," may be an amplified versification of the prosaic ^^°^" Venery of Mayster John GyfFord and Will™ Twety, that were with Kyng Edward the Secunde j" or possibly a compilation and translation by the sister of Lord Berners, or the " one sumtyme schole mayster of Seynt Albons " from earher Latin Warton s Hist. • J J ofEngl. Poetry, and French writers : but such authorities are as yet, I believe, ^o - "• P- ^2. unknown to Antiquaries. Excepting, therefore, the few lines, before alluded to, in the latest of the Latin Cynegetica, and the earher portrait of Oppian, which I consider referable to the

6 PREFACE. hound in question, it may be said that we do not possess m Book of St. Alprint any full description of "the propritees of a good Grehounde" Ix tmv mZHv I5 t^v xsipaX^v, from the time ot tne learned Courser of Nicomedia, till that of the sporting prioress of Sopewell. Not that I am ignorant of the curious early treatise of Gaston Phoebus, the celebrated Comte de Foix, written in the middle of the fourteenth century, entitled " Des Deduitz de la Ms. Cotton. Chasse de Bestes Sauvaiges et des Oyseaux de Proye ; " nor Vesp. B. xu. Brit. Mus. of a more rare work in manuscript, Clje lEap^tCt Of ©ame, Henry VI. pt. composed by Edmund Duke of York, " Edmund Langley, Edward the Third s fifth son," in the latter part of the fourteenth century; and therefore, in point of date, claiming a priority to the book of St. Albans, as do, of course, the lucubrations of the Second Edward s attendants before mentioned. But these enchiridia of field sports preceded the Sopewell collection only a few years ; and in the Count de Foix s manual, as given by Fouilloux under the title of " La Chasse du Roy Phebus," there is nothing on our subject worth noticing. Ms. ut supra. In ^])t Crafte Of Jlontpnu ^ by Gyfford and Twety, the greyhound is mentioned only once ; and hare-coursing is not recorded at all. Hardyng s The unpublished labours of the Duke of York, * " EdClironicle. monde, hyght of Langley," contain much. original and valuable I. The Craftt of J^Olttsnj is supposed to be a version by GyiFord from a more ancient work by Twety 6r Twici—" Le art de Venerie le quelMaistre Guillaiue Twici Venour leRoy d Angleterre fist en son temps per aprandre autres. " The greyhound ^ , Tj I is mentioned fol, 4. of ilolDinj. " Whanamanhath setuparcherysand greyhoundes, Poetry, V. n. and the becsl be founde and passe out the boundys, and myne houndes aftir," &c. 221. 2. These instructions were written for Henry Prince of Wales, afterwards Henry V.

PREFACE. 7 information: and it is to be regretted that it is not rendered more available to coursers by being committed to the press. With copious general descriptions of our ancient field-sports, and animals obnoxious to the chase, CfjC M&^^ttt Of «3ame unites specific delineations of the shape of each variety of canis venaticus, employed by British sportsmen of past days, with occasional references to the chace practices of foreign countries " by yonde the see. " The chapter o£ grejljounbesf anb Of ])ttt nature, as cited hereafter in illustration of Arrian, will be read with pleasure. Indeed the Duke s portrait of the Celtic hound is even more minutely accurate and precise than its Grecian prototype, and i)tt mantlCl*^ as they are quaintly termed, and briefly sketched in the royal Cynegeticus, establish many of the remarks of the younger Xenophonwepi Tijf yvrnjuiif TUtV xvvcov. Still Dame Julyan s compilation being, at least, the first of the kind that issued from the English press, and the type of our modern works of Venery, may be viewed as the earliest attempt, since the revival of letters, to certify by intelligible canons, the corporeal characteristics of a good greyhound. With the traditionary dogmata of Sir Tristrem de Liones,^ who was the reputed " begynner of all the termes of huntynge and hawkynge," it incorporates the accumulated knowledge of many centuries. 1. The " Morte Arthur" tells us, that " Tristrem laboured ever in bunting and Scott s Sir hawking so that we never read of no gentleman more that so used himself tberein," -Instrem. &c. and in the rich poetry of Spenser, the knight informs Sir Calidore, my most delight hath always been To hunt the salvage chace, amongst my peers, Of all that rangeth in the forest green. Of which none is to me unknown, that ever yet was seen.

8 PEEFACE. Script. iUust. And the Damei being no ordinary personage—" Illustns foeM. B. auct. I. I •« BaieoCeiit. 8. mlna, Corporis et animi dotibus abundans, ac tormse eieganiia oidys in Bio- spectabilis —heroica mulier, ingeniosa virago" — "a second graph. Bntan- ^ . . • v nica, in voce Minerva in her studies, and another Diana in her diversions Caxton, note. her contemporaries would doubtless receive a cynegetical treatise from her cloister at Sopewell, with gratitude and admiration. After the publication of the book of St. Albans, other cynegetica poetical and prosaic, in various languages, followed in rapid succession ; of which the earUest in my possession are from the presses of Aldus and Feyerabendi ; but collectively they afford very scanty instruction on the history and practice of the leash. Venat. Hercu- The Epiccdium of the Florentine poet, Hercules Stroza, adlis Strozae, &c. i i i n i i c Francofort. drcsscd to the Duchess of Ferrara ; the hendecasyllables ot 1582. Adrian. Card!- Adrian Castellesi, and the quatrains of John Adam Lonicer, nal. Venat. Aldus, 1534. with their accompanying: " icones artificiosissimse ad vivum Venat. et Au- , tr J a cup. per J. A. expressse," add nothing to our stock of information. And the Lonicer. Fran- ° cof. 1582. same may be said of the chaste cynegetical eclogues, " Sarnis cundi Soiitari^^ Vibumus," of Petrus Lotichius Secundus, ensis Poem. omnia. BurmanuiAmstel. 1754. . . . . Qui citbaia pnnius, qm pnmus carminis arte Inter erat vates, Teutonis ora, tuos. 1. The Biographia Biitannica is amusingly severe in its strictures on the renowned Mrs. Barnes, and her incongruous occupations in the field and cloister. " There Biograph. Brit, appears such a motley masquerade—such an indistinctness of petticoat and breeches, note, Caxton, —such a problem and conoorporation of sexes, according to the image that arises out "* of the several representations of this religious sportswoman or virago, that one can scarcely consider it, without thinking Sir Tristram, the old monkish forester, and Juliana, the matron of the nuns, had united to confirm Jolm Cleveland s Canonical Hermaphrodite. "

PREFACE. I have in vain examined the four books of " Natalis Comes Natal. Comesde Venatione Aldi de Venatione" for more than the name of the canis Celticus — fii. Venet. issi. probably to be interpreted of the war-dog of Gaul, rather than the Vertragus. The Cynegeticon of Peter Angelio, commonly called, from Petri AngeUi Bargaii Poemahis Tuscan birth-place, Bargseus, is said to have been the » omnia. Fio ^ & rent. 1568. labour of twenty years. It is a splendid specimen of modern Latinity, in beautiful Virgilian hexameters, to which the literary courser will award their merited meed of praise. The most approved shape of the " canis cursor " is correctly portrayed, with a reference to the fabulous tale of the Ovidian Lselaps. Nor has the poet disdained to enter on the minute and necessary details of breeding, and kenneling the pack. Indeed the whole of his fifth book is devoted to the " blanda canum soboles ; " and the reader will find incorporated in the instructions therein given, nearly all the arcana of the Greek and Latin Cynegetica, excepting those of Arrian s Manual, which do not appear to have been known to the poet of Barga. He employs the greyhound in coursing the fox, wolf, deer, and goat ; but gives no description of hare-coursing in any of the six books of his Cynegeticon ; nor in the eclogues entitled " Venatoria," forming part of the fifth book of his " Carmina. " Had the manuscript of Arrian s Cynegeticus been known to him, he would, doubtless, have entered as fully into harecoursing, as he has into every other variety of chase. Of Conrad Heresbach s compendium of fishing, fowling, c. Heresbaciiii Compendium and hunting, ^ attached to his larger work " de Re Rustic^,," I TbereuticiE universae. 1. Should the reader meet with any extracts from the Compendium in the subsequent annotations, they are to be received on the authority of Conrad Gesner, from whose " Historia Quadrupedum " they are selected. The same learned work has B

10 PEEFACE. have in vain endeavoured to procure a copy. It is a prosaic vyork, treating more of animal history, as I am informed, than of venation : still as this abbreviator of the labours of his predecessors was a man of various acquirements, and extensive erudition, it would have been satisfactory to me to have examined his " Compendium Thereuticee Universse ; " or at least the first part of it, devoted to the hunting of terrestrial animals. H. Fracastorii The Alcon of Fracastor is in every one s hands ; being AlcoQ, sea de Cura Canum. annexed to the editions of the Poetse Venatici by Johnson and Kempher. It contains nothing on the subject of coursing. M. A. Blondi To Michael Angelo Blondus or Biondi, we are indebted for de Canibus et Venat. libeilus, the first hint on clothing; greyhounds in the field, and for other matters connected with the discipline of the kennel and its Joan. Darcii inmates ; and to Joannes Darcius, a truly classic poet of Venusini Canes Francof. 1582. Venusium, not unworthy the natal town of Horace, for an elegant sketch of a hare-course, cited in the subsequent annotations. It is singular that the greyhound, indigenous as we suppose him of Gallia Celtica, should have been so little noticed by his countrymen—that a variety of chase heretofore peculiar to Gaul should have been omitted in almost all the cynegetical works of Frenchmen of the olden time ; and that the same omission should be chargeable on the moderns, — on the " Venerie Normande" of M. Le Verrier de la Conterie, the " Traite de Venerie" of M. D Yauville, and even, to a great extent, on the volume of the Encyclopedie Methodique, which professes to be a " Dictionnaire de toutes les esp^ces de Chasses. " afforded the few parallel passages adduced from Albertus Magnus, Belisarius, and Taidif. For all others the translator is himself answerable, having culled them from the origiuiil sources, and generally from the moat approved editions.

PREFACE. 11 Savary of Caen published a Latin poem on hare-hunting Album Dian», in seven books, entitled " Album Dianee Leporicidee, sive fe ss. ^ "" Venationis Leporinae leges," of some rarity, but of little merit. He appears to have had an especial dislike to the canis Gallicus, anathematizing the ancient Celtic recreation in the very style of our own Somerville, who in many parts of " The Chase" seemingly had his eye on the poet of Caen : Nam neque defixi canis irretila coturnix Alb. Diana; &c. Indicio, non iusidiis oppressa Laconum " P ^ Heu leporum virlus, brevis ilia et avara voluptas, Et quorum nunquani cor est satiabile csdis Nobile venandi nomen meruere ! The courser will scarce recognize his favourite dog in the slanderous abstract misnomer of " Lacedsemonii pernix violentia monstri. " The celebrated works of Jaques du Fouilloux, and his con- La Chasse du temporary Jean de Clamorgan, do not treat of the use of the °"^ ^ greyhound, except merely " in setting back-sets, or receytes for deare, wolfe, foxe, or such like :" but in " the noble art of Turberviie s b. of H. p. 246. Venerie" by Turbervile and Gascoigne, in " the Jewell for Gentrie," and the compilations of Gervase Markham, we find Couutiey Con^ tentments. much illustration of the science and history of the leash in CountrejFarme Great Britain. * 1. Innuba, qui pariter ccslebs, duo nuniina caitu . . . „ . . . . . . . , . . ,,. Alb. Dianas &c. Assiduo colit, Artemidem junzitque Minervse, ^_ jy_ p_ g^, Caius utiique Deaa Savary, quern sedula semper Investigandi leporia tenet ultima cnra. 2. The date of the greyhouDd s introduction into these islands is with difficulty Symmachi Eascertained. If the "septem Scoticorum canum oblatio " of Flavian, wherewith he pist. I,, n. graced the Quasstor s spectacle of his brother Syraraachus at Rome, be really coarse P varieties of the Celtic type, as supposed by Christopher Wase, this hound must have

12 PREFACE. Turbervile, or whoever be the translator of Fouilloux, has appended an admirable breviary of coursing to " the booke of vva»e siiiustra- hunting :" and Wase notifies of Gervase Markham, that " he do^sufGratius ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ the fruits of his own experience, as in the whole cycle of husbandry accurately ; so in Cynegetiques excellently. " His chapter on coursing with greyhounds » is well worthy perusal ; as is also the description of the " Leporarius" by Dr. Caius in his " Libellus de canibus Britannicis. "—Need I stop to remark the doubtful features of the " canis alter prsepete cursu" of Vaniere s Praedium Rusticum?—Some few points belong apparently to the Celtic hound, J. Vanierii P^^ " gracilis, longa internodia crurum, Prsed. Rustic. Argutum caput, et levibus vis ignea plantis; " Demissiimque brevi pectus se coUigit alvo. but his latrancy (" insequitur claris lepores latratibus") would rather assign him to a different kennel. Works of a later date are too well known to need particular notice. Very few are the improvements, either in the discipline of the courser s kennel, or his practice in the field, transmitted to us by these collective cynegetica ; and modern ingenuity has been found here as early as the reign of Theodosius. Indeed Hector Boethius and Holinsbed place him amongst us at an earlier period : nor is it improbable that he See the Appeu- originally accompanied the Scoto-Celts from the continent of Europe at their primary dix Class III. irruption into Ireland and Scotland. We have evidence of his being an inmate of the Cotton. Mas. Anglo-Saxon kennels in the days of Elfric, Duke of Mercia; and manuscriptal Tiber. B. v. paintings have descended to us of a Saxon chieftain and his huntsman, attended by a brace of greyhounds, of the date of the 9th century—the earliest representation which I have seen of this hound as connected with British field-sports. 1. Contained in his work entitled " Countrey Contentments. " In addition to which, " The Countrey Farme," by the same author, a compilation from the French, will be read with amusement.

PREFACE. 13 added little to our knowledge in any department of coursing, as the reader of the Nicomedian s Manual will readily acknowledge. His remarks on the physical indications of excellence in greyhounds, and of speed and good blood,—derived from external shape and character generally,—on the unimportance of colour,—on the indications afforded by temper, tractability in the field, mode of feeding, &c. are perfect as far as they go. Nor can we improve on his kennel management, in feeding, Arriani de \ enatione bedding, (ew^ /xaXflax^ xa) aKsetvrj), rubbing down, (rgivj/ij tou c. ix. (TtojjkaTo; B-avTOf,) exercising, alternated with confinement, &c. <=• ^• &c. As to slipping-law, and the number of hounds to be = ^• slipped at once, his injunctions fi^ rs lyyuSev sTriKveiv Tf KaycS, jiMjTs TrXe ouf SuoTv, are strictly complied with at present by all fair sportsmen. The Celts, it appears, had four different ways of coursing, all of which are practised by modern amateurs, according to their several tastes, and the nature of the countries in which they follow their sport. The superior class of Celtic gentlemen, oo-oi fiev ttAoutouo-iv «y- c. xix. Twv xa) Tfv^aia-iv, employed persons to look out for hares in their forms, early in the morning, and to inform them by a messenger what success they had met with, before they left home themselves. A second class, probably less opulent, and not able to afford c. xx. the expense of hare-finders, mustered all their brother-amateurs, and beat the ground in regular array, abreast of each other. Both these parties were mounted on horseback ; but a third class saUied forth on foot, and these, Arrian says, were really workmen at the sport, auToupyot xuvrjyeo-i wv : if any person

14 PREFACE. accompanied the latter on horseback, he was ordered to keep up with the greyhounds. A fourth mode of coursing, sometimes adopted by them, was that of first loosing dogs of scent c. XXI. to find, and start the game, and then slipping the greyhounds, as soon as it came within sight. Upon all of these different practices the father of the leash has entered most fully in his classical Manual : and if to these points we add his sensible remarks on the entering of puppies, on breeding, management after whelping, feeding and naming of young dogs, comparison of sexes, &c. ; his merit will be allowed to be commensurate with his antiquity, and his enchiridion not only the earliest in the annals of the leash, but altogether the most abundant in valuable information. It is foreign to my purpose and inclination to enter into a prolix defence of the courser s pursuit, against the objections of Countrey Con- its adversaries in the field or closet. " I would not goe about," tentments, B. 1. u. i. in the words of Gervase Markham, " to elect and prescribe what recreation the husbandman should use, binding all men to one pleasure—God forbid ! my purpose is merely contrary : for I know in men s recreations, that nature taketh to herselfe an especiall prerogative,, and what to one is most pleasant, to another is most offensive ; some seeking to satisfie the mind, some the body, and some both in a joynt motion. " We of the coursing fraternity prefer the " canis Gallicus," and " arvum vacuum" of Ovid, as instrumental to our choicest diversion ; Nemesian. camposque patentes Cjneg. vs. 48. Scrutamur, totisque citi discurrimus arvis ; Et cupimus facili cane suinere prasda ( Nos timidos lepores

PREFACE. 15 but we do not forbid others imbelles figere damas, Audacesve lupos, vulpeni aut captare dolosam. For the refined diversion of coursing may be as disagreeable to the fox-hunter, whose only joy is when The bounds shall make the welkin answer them, Taming of the And fetch shrill echoes from the hollow earth, Shrevi, Sc. ii. as it is delisrhtful to the general amateur, on account of its ^„. , ,^. ^ ° Elhs s Histor. chaste, and temperate, and contemplative quiet. King James, ries"voM?i^* in his Bao-iXixov Jcogov, (himself, according to Sir Theodore AXinge sXtian Mayerne, " violentissimis olim venationis exercitiis deditus,") q^^ B. m. praises " the hunting with running houndes, as the most honourable and noblest sort thereof," and is supported by the high authority of Edmund de Langley, . JKlap^tcr Of dDattlE : ^- "* ® to. 64. adding " it is a thievish forme of hunting to shoote with gunnes and bowes, and greyhounde hunting is not so martiall a game. " But on the other hand, Sir Thomas Elyot, in "The B. i. e. 17. Governour," speaking of " those exercises apte to the furniture of a gentylman s personage," and " not utterly reproved of noble autours, if they be used with oportunitie and in measure," calls " hunting of the hare with grehoundes a ryght good solace for men that be studiouse, or theim to whom nature hathe not geven personage, or courage apte for the warres ; and also for gentilwomen, which feare nether sonne nor wynde for appayryng their beautie. And peradventure they shall be therat lesse idell, than they shold be at home in their chaambers. " — And the author of " The Booke of Hunting," annexed to Turbervile s Falconrie, concludes his treatise with the following singular panegyric " concerning coursing with greyhoundes " — " the which is doubtlesse a noble pastime, and as meet for

16 PREFACE. nobility and gentleman, as any of the other kinds of Venerie before declared : especially the course of the hare, which is a sport continually in sight, and made without any great travaile : so that recreation is therein to be found without unmeasurable toyle and payne : * whereas in hunting with hounds, although the pastime be great, yet many times the toyle and paine is also exceeding great : and then it may well be called, eyther a painfull pastime, or a pleasant payne. " Coursing, more than the other laborious diversions of rural life, while it ministers to our moderate sensual enjoyment, admits also during the intervals of the actual pursuit of hound and hare, much rational reflection, opportunities of conversation with our brethren of the leash, and mental improvement. It tends, as Markham quaintly expresses himself, " to satisfie the mind and body in a joynt motion ;" for in the beautiful poetry of a living patron of the Celtic dog, there is no interval of idleness with the well-read courser ; Marmion, In- Nor dull between each merry chase, trod, to Canton. passes the intermitted space : For we have fair resource in store. In Classic and in Gothic lore. Oppian. Hali- *• TepnaKij 5 tVeTai fl^pp irXeov iifwep ISp^s. eut. I. vs. 28. Coursing has ever been held an honourable and gentlemanly amusement in Great Britain, from its earliest annals to the present tiine. Nor can I discover any authority for the truth of Vlitius s opinion, as given in his note on the Veltraha of Gratius. Vlitii Venatio " Ne ideo Vertragis suis sagaces posthabeat ille Xenophon : nam hodie in Anglic Novantiqua. sagaces nobilissimi quique exercent; Vertrago autem leporem conficere, indignutii bene nato parum abest quin habeatnr. " Such never was the opinion entertained of " greyhound hunting," in King James s phrase :-indeed the farther we go back into the history of the leash, the higher it lanked in the scale of British field-sports. See the "Constitutiones Canuti Regis de forest^"_and Blounfs Ancient Tenures passim, for instances of t(ie high repute in which the courser s hound has ever been held in Great Britain.

PREFACE. ]7 But there are those who anathematize hunting and coursing, and other rural recreation, either as sinful, i or indicative of barbarism and mental degradation, in the ratio of the pursuit. Like Cornelius Agrippa, they view venation in genere- as the ^^ l°<=ert. et Vanit. &c. c. worst occupation of the worst of mankind ; and say with ^ " ^i Philip Stubbes, that " Esau was a great hunter, but a re- The Anatomie n , T , , of Abuses. probat ; Ismael, a great hunter, but a miscreant ; Nemrode, a great hunter, but yet a reprobat, and a vessell of wrath ; " and bid us, in the poetic badinage of the poet of Cyrene, leave off coursing : ?a vp6icas ^Si \ayaobs Callimachus, H. oSpea $6aKeaecu- t( S4 xev irpdxfs ^SJ Xa7»i)l •" Dian. vs. 154. ^e^CLttv ; swearing, with the melancholy Jaques, that we As You Like It. Are mere usurpers, tyrants, and what s worse, * ^ "• To fright the animals, and to kill them up. In their assign d and native dwelling-place. But if " some habites and customes of delight" are allowable and indispensable to the " contentment" of the human 1. The reader will be amused with Simon Latham s epilogue to the third edition of his " Faulconry," wherein he combats (for he wrote in ticklish times, 1658) with his usual quaintness of style and illustration, the notion of the sinfulness of rural sports : inferring that they may " be lawfully and conscientiously used with moderation by a magistrate or minister, or lawyer or student, or any other seriously employed, which in any function heat their brains, waste their bodies, weaken their strength, weary their spirits ; that as a means (and blessing from God) by it their decayed strength may be restored, their vital and animal spirits quickened, refreshed, and revived, their health preserved, and they better enabled (as a bow unbended for shooting) to the discharging of their weighty charges imposed upon them. "

18 PREFACE. mind, and "men of exceeding strickt lives and severity of profession " have indulged in rural diversions, why need we regard the severe reflections of the sensitive Monsieur Paschal, or his more modem plagiarists ? why think that wisdom loves not the courser s sport ? or that man is degTaded before the tribunal of sound reason by estimating aright the instinct of any of the creatures around him ? or made sinful in the eyes of his Creator by availing himself of the adapted powers of the lowliest of the brute race, for the subjugation of such wild animals as were originally designed by a bountiful Creator for Cicero de Nat. the Sustenance and recreation of man ? " Canum ver6 tarn Deor. L. ii. c. incredibilis ad investigandum sagacitas narium, tanta alacritas in venando, quid significat aliud nisi se ad hominum commoditates esse generatos ? " The inference in regard to the chases and field sports generally is surely just, " that man, by co-operating with such animals, employs both his and their faculties on the purposes for which they were partially designed : tending thereby to complete the bounteous scheme of Providence, the happiness and well-being of all its creatures. " 63. Manchester Memoirs V. i. Jul. Caesar. Scaliger. Epidorpidum L. IV. videtur Natura parens bunc bomini dedisse ludum, Su^ obire manu retia, defigere varos, Hos cum docuit: cum accipitrem redire jussum Jucunda canes cum leporarios creabat : Nunquatn faciens frustra aliquid carensve fine. Somerville, Chace. B. iv. The brute creation are man s property, Subservient to bis will, and for bim made. As hurtful these be kills, as useful those Preserves ; their sole and arbitrary king. Should he not kill, as erst the Samian sage Taught unadvised, and Indian Brachraans now

PREFACE. 19 As vainly preach ; the teeming rav nous brutes Might fill the scanty space of this terrene, Incumh ring all the globe. Mr. Warton, the talented historian of English Poetry, a bookful Academic, and not a /xaflijT^s xuvniysa-loov, acquits the Xenophon de hunter of the charge of barbarism, and acknowledges that " the pleasures of the chase seem to have been implanted bv * • °^ ^"^l* r J Poetry, V. ii. nature ; and under due regulation, if pursued as a matter of mere relaxation, and not of employment, are by no means incompatible with the modes of polished life. " The difference of opinion on the subject of the chase has arisen entirely from the different lights in which it has been viewed ; the one exhibiting its rational use, the other its intemperate abuse. " Elle a trouve autant de censeurs outr^s Encyciopfeiie M^thudique que d apologistes enthousiastes, parmi les anciens et les sur les Chasses, * ^ avertisscment. modernes, parce qu elle a ete envisagee sous le double rapport de son utilite et de ses abus. " Amongst the ancient eulogists, in the Grecian language, will be found Aristotle, Plato, Xenophon, Polybius, and Juhus Pollux ; in the Latin, Cicero, Horace, Virgil, Seneca, Phny, Justin, Symmachus, and others. To which numerous phalanx of classic worthies there is no opponent authority, save that of Sallust: and of more recent days, Petrarch, and Cornelius Agrippa. Not to swell this prefatory matter with too many citations from obsolete languages, I have referred the reader, who may wish to know more of the eloges alluded to, severally to the passages in a note subjoined. ^ But 1. Aristot. de Polit. L. i. c. v. Plato de Legibus L. vii. Xenophon. Cyropsed. L. I. c. V. L. viir. c. XII, Eespub, Lacedsem. c. iii. Cyneget. c. t, xii. xiii. Poly

20 PREFACE. touching the adverse party, a word or two may be here admitted. In appreciating the authority of Sallust s sentiments on the subject of field-sports, as given in the studied preface of his Bell. Catai. c. j. Catilinarian War, " Non fuit consilium socordi& atque desidia bonum otium conterere : neque ver5, agrum colendo, aut venando, servilibus officiis intentum, setatem agere ; " we should remark the ambitious tone of pretended philosophy in which the introduction is written : " Nostra omnis vis in animo, et corpore sita est. Animi imperio, corporis servitio magis utimur ; alterum nobis cum Diis, alterum cum belluis commune est. " And that this distinction between mental and bius Hist. L. xxxi. Jul. Pollux Onomast. L. v. Prsfat. Commodo. —Cicero de Nat. D. L. II. de OfBciis L. i. Horat. L. i. Epist. xviii. Virgil. jEneid. L. vii. ix. Seneca de Provid. c. ii. Plinii Panegyr, Traj. D. —Justin. Hist. Epit. L. xxxvii. Symmacli. Epist. L. v. Ep. 66. It will be readily ceded that the amatory expostulation of Sulpitia to her dear Cherinthus, TibuUi Eleg. L. Sed procul abducit venandi deTia cara ^ O pereant sjlvje, deficiantque canes! Quis furor est, quse mens, densos indagine collea Claudentem teneras laedere velle raanus ? Quidve juvat furtim latebras intrare ferarum, Candidaque hamatis crura notare rubis ? and the epistle of Ausouius to the ruralist Theon, Ausonii Epist. Sed tu parce feris venatibus, et fuge nota ^ Crimina sylvarum : ne sis Cinyreia proles, Accedasque iterum Veneri plorandus Adonis; are too jocular to place Tibullus and the poet of Bourdeaux on the side of the Catilinarian historian.

PREFACE. 21 corporeal qualities, their proper relation to each other, and the subordinate character of the latter to that of the former, is otSr ijvopffis, oSt elfStos htAst ivetap Oppian. Hali/ « ,, eut. L. V. us. Tdaaov, oaov irpaniBav, gj are kept up in the passage first adduced : in which he merely means to say that he does not wish to spend his time in slothful idleness ; and that the rural vocations of agriculture and hunting, being of a secondary and inferior character, more connected with the body than the mind, are not agreeable to his taste, as the business and occupation of life, " getatem agere. " And we must allow that the entire and constant dedication of time to practical agriculture, or rural sports, to the care of flocks and herds, or the kenneling and coursing of greyhounds, unvaried by such higher studies and pursuits as are characteristic of well-educated men, must be deemed, in polished life, rather lowly employment ; —approaching too near Arist. PoUt. L. to the class of occupations, which the Stagirite considers sordid and servile, as being exercised by the corporeal powers alone : —to avoid which, Sallust declares a decided preference to speculative over bodily activity; to the "vita in literis" HistoriaVitset ^ Mortis, over the " vita rusticana:" " qu6 mihi rectius videtur, " says he, " ingenii quim virium opibus gloriam quserere. " Disclaiming that union of both, which we so much admire in the Athenian philosopher of the Scilluntian retreat, and his counterpart, the modern literary country gentleman ; a fair example of an individual acting upon the twofold principle on which Mr. Addison regulated his conduct. " As a compound of soul and body, obliged to a double scheme of duties ; and thinking that he has not fulfilled the business of the day, unless he has

22 PREFACE. employed the one in labour and exercise, as well as the other in study and contemplation," Oppiaa, T$ TiJ liepyliiv SvaTepirea t5\« SicSkoi Kol KpaSiris Kai xeipos, TheGovemour, « It is not onely called Idelnes," says Sir Thomas Elyot, B. I. c. XXVI. " wherin the body or mynde cesseth from laboure, but specially ydelnes is an omission of al honest exercise. " Passing over, for the present, the objections of Petrarch, let us pause for a moment on the vituperations of Henricus Sir T. Eiyot s Cornelius Agrippa. So confessedly crabbed a gentleman as The Governour, B. 1. 1. XI. this " noble clerke of Almayn," can add but little weight to the scanty file of semi-classical oppositionists. Admitting in his dedication to Furnatius his mental approximation to the canine qualities of the metamorphosed Queen of Troy, H. c. Agrippa " adeo ut ex ipsa indignatione ferm^ cum Troiana ilia Hecub^ ia Dedicat. D. r & J Aug. Furnatio. yersus sum in canem, ac nuUarum virium sim ad benfe dicendum, nil amplius memini nisi mordere, oblatrare, maledicere, conviciari," &c. , his verdict cannot be received as that of a candid and unprejudiced adversary. The general contempt with which he visits all the arts and sciences, deprives his De Vaiiit. et anti-cynegetical calumnies of much of their poignancy, and Incert. &c. u. Lxxvii. renders his " ars crudelis et tota tragica, cujus voluptas est in morte et in sanguine, quam ipsa deberet refugere humanitas,"* &c. scarce worthy of the courser s notice. ^ 1. The plaintive poel of " The Task," B. in. has seemingly borrowed from Agrippa s page the memorable crimination of the hunter s pursuit : Cowper s Detested sport. The Garden. That owes its pleasures to another s pain ; Tliat feeds upon the sobs and dying shrieks Of harmless nature, &c. 2. I purposely omit all notice of the " Venalio Amphithealralis," or "V, in

PREFACE. 23 The moderate and occasional recourse to field-diversions, with the same object that influenced Pliny in their pursuit, aren^" of ancient Rome ; of wliicli Tertullian, Augustin, Chrysoslom, and the Christian Cicero, Lactantius, have written with merited reprobation. " Cum vidercnt j i •• ^ pietatis damiio, addictum devmctumqiie populum his ludis ; passim invecti in eos, ut turnal. Sermon. libidinis, sasvitiaeque fontes; et bene illi. " Not a word can be advanced in palliation 1^- • >;• 7. of tliese brutal outrages of humanity, " ^ Pradentius. Amphitheatralis spectacula tristia pompas ! wherein man was "butcher d to make a Roman holiday"— "Homo occiditnr ad Childe Harold s hominis voluptatera. " With this monstrous variety of Venatio, so called kot" ^|oxV> Pilgrimage, c. and recorded as such with horror, we have nothing to do ; with its abettors under any f;™j;j„ adDoqualified form, the modern frequenters of the coclt-pit or bear-garden, the heroes natum. of a bull-bait, and patrons of mercenary pugilists, the rivals of the "municipalis arenas perpetui comites " of Juvenal s days, we have no sentiments in common. We have hailed with exultation the victory already effectuated, or in course of gradual achievement, over the ferocious barbarities of the amphitheatre, and the semi-pagan cruelties of more modern spectacles—a victory that is attempering the pastimes cf the English people to the religion and morality of the age ; and we sincerely deplore the existence of the Beirpov KWifyeTiKhv of Dio, under any modificaliun, in any part of the civilized world. The Sabbath comes, a day of blessed rest ; Childe Harold s What hallows it upon this Christian shore ? Pilgrimage, u. Lo ! it is sacred to a solemn feast ; Hark ! heard you not the forest monarch s roar ? Crashing the lance, he snufiFs the spouting gore Of man and steed, o erthrown beneath his horn ; The throng d arena shakes with shouts for more ; Yells the mad crowd o er entrails freshly torn. Nor shrinks the female eye, nor ev n affects to mourn. Let Christianity transfuse its lenient spirit into all our sports, and instead of the amphitheatrical entertainments, and barbarian amusements of infidels, let us have such as are congenial to the humanity of Christians. Let us be the champions of rational recreation, not of brutal gratification ;—the friends of man, and not unnecessarily the enemies of inferior animals ; —spectators in our temperate and innocent diversions of the dog s innate faculties and prowess for the seizure of the destined animals of the chase—" to see how God in all his creatures works," and witnesses of K. Henry VI. Pt. II. act II. sc. 1.

24 PREFACE. . " ut animus agitatione motuque corporis excitetur, " is not reprehensible, nor inconsistent with the due cultivation of the mind, and the fulfilment of the higher duties of Hfe. Petr. Lotichii jngg etiam citharam Phoebus quandoque repomt : 2di EcloK. 1. , Sarnis. vs 10. ^ pharelras plectris, et mutat plectra pliaretris. But " there is an especiall need, " observes Christopher Wase, in the preface of his translation of Gratius, after much just praise of hunting, " to hold a strict reine over our affections, that this pleasure, which is allowable in its season, may not entrench upon other domesticall affaires. We must consider that it wastes much time, and although it have its own praise, being an honest recreation and exercise, yet it is not of the noblest parts of life. There is great danger lest wee bee transported with this pastime, and so ourselves grow wild, haunting the woods till wee resemble the beasts which are citizens of them, ^ and, by continual conversation with dogs, become altogether addicted to slaughter and carnage, which is wholly dishonorable, being a servile employment. For as it is the privilege of man, who is endued with reason, and " the curious search or conquest of one beast over another, persued by a naturall instinct of enmitie ; —" how Rokeby, c, lit. Tlie slow hound wakes the fox s lair, The greyhound presses on the hare ; but not hostile instigators of canine ferocity to the heartless maiming and slaying an unnatural prey—a species of animal conflict never intended by creative wisdom ; and wherein violence is done to natural instinct to minister to man s unhallowed sport, H. C. Agrippso 1. Cui dum niraium insistunt, ipsi abjectil humanitate ferae efficiuntur, morumque de Vanitate &c. prodigios^ perversitate, tanquam Actffion mutantur in naturam belluarum. C. LXXVII,

PREFACE. 25 authorized in the law of his creation to subdue the beasts of the field, so to tyrannize over them is plainly brutish. " On Noah, and in him on all mankind Cowper s Task, The charter was conferr d, by which we hold ^ ^ " The flesh of animals in fee, and claim O er all we feed on pow r of life and death. But read the instrument, and mark it well : Th" oppression of a tyrannous controul Can find no warrant there. Feed then, and yield Thanks for thy food. Carnivorous, through sin, Feed on the slain, but spare the living brute. When field amusements are allowed to engross the whole of our attention, and in their pursuit to enslave, as it were, the mind to the body; when they become the egya of life instead of the ^apepyx, its daily occupation, instead of the occasional recreation of its leisure hours ; they constitute, as Rittershusius has well observed, a culpable flijgojuavi a, and certainly tend, by devoting the attention exclusively to inferior objects, to abridge the intellect of that sustenance which it should occasionally derive from more refined and important studies. " Fateor insitam esse nobis corporis nostri caritatem : fateor Seneca Epist. XIV. nos hujus gerere tutelam : non nego indulgendura illi, serviendum nego. " With such ultra-sportsmen the translator has no community of sentiment : nor will they experience from common sense less severity of reproof than " Reason " bestows on Petrarchaj Rethem in the dialogue with " Joy" in Petrarch s " Remedia med- Utriusque Fortunas, Lib. i. ___^ Dial. 32. 1. " In -using either of these games observe that moderation," says King James to Ba(ri\tKhv AaPrince Henry, " that ye slip not therewith the houres appointed for your affaires, po" B. in. which ye ought ever precisely to keepe ; remembering that these games are but ordained for you, in enabling you for your office, for the which ye are ordained," &c.

26 PREFACE. Utriusque Fortunse. " "Ad honestum nihil idonei, " says Ratio, " sylvas colunt, non vitara solitariam acturi, cui non miniis qu^m politicae se ineptos sciunt, sed feris, ac canibus, et volucribus convicturi, quod non facerent, nisi illis similitudine aliqua juncti essent : qui, si ex hoc voluptatem quandam, seu solam temporis fugam quserunt, utrinque stulti, voti compotes forsan evaserint. Sin, nescio quam, seu ingenii, seu magnificentise gloriam aucupantur, errant," &c. ^ The whole dialogue is an admirable rebuke of the licentious sporting in the days of this extraordinary genius. ^ " Hie amor, hagc felicitas, et hoc totum, quod Creatori Deo, quod altrici patriae, quod parentibus, quod amicis redditis? Quis vos ferat, ad aliud natos, in his vivere, si modo vivitis, hoc agentes 1 " says " Reason : " and I confess that I am unable and unwilling to furnish " Joy" with a reply of defence ; approving, as I do, of the joint worship of Minerva and Diana, Plin. Epist. L. recommended by Tacitus to his correspondent Pliny, and of making the health of the body conducive to that of the mind : IX. 10. 1 . According to the decisions of judicial astrology in casting nativities, Julius J. Firmici As- Firmicus remarks that the following personages, " equorum nutritores, accipitrum, tionomic. . V. f^igg^mn^ caeterarumque avium, quss ad aucupia pertinent, similiter et Molossorum, Vertagrorum, et qui sunt ad venationes accomodati," being born when the planet Venus is in Aquarius, are incapable of application to any more laudable pursuit than hunting and hawking. 2, The chasseurs of Agrippa s days, laical and clerical, were equally reprehensible. From the Thebans, this literary Tiraonist tells us, the worst of men, Venation passed to the Trojans, not much better, and thence to Greece and Borne, brutalizing the inDe Incert, et habitants of the earth in its progress—" Tandem hajc exercitia in se revera servilia et Vanit. &c. t. mechanica eo usque evecta sunt, ut positis quibusque liberalibus studiis, hodie prima LXXVII » 1 1. ? IT nobilitatis elementa atque progiessus sint, illis ducibus ad summum gradum perveniatur : hodieque ipsa regum et principum vita, ipsa etiam (proh dolor !) abbatum, episcoporum, cseterorunique ecclesia; prajfectorum religio, tola inquam venatio est/ &c.

PREFACE. 27 " ut sua menti constet sanitas, " says Christopher Wase to William Lord Herbert, " et justum corpori accedat robur. " It must ever be borne in mind that the illustrious heroes of Xenophon s classic file acquired not their renown by hunting prowess alone, but by its union with moral and intellectual endowments : Ix Tijf iTn/j^sXeia; Tijf tcuv xuvwv xa) xov)jys(7i«)v xctl ex Xenoplion. Cyneg. c. I. 7)]j «AX))j Totihla; ttoAu Sisvsyxo vTsj xara TtjV aperriv eSaufitairSrjirav. Chiron himself was invested with the privileges and science of the chase on account of his moral worth, 8ia 8ixa/oT)]Ta—for he was SixaioTarof KevrauoMv. And the numerous disciples of Oiph. Argon. V. 377. the craft, distinguished in the annals of the world as practical sportsmen, from Cephalus and iEsculapius to ^Eneas and Achilles, left other claims on the notice of posterity than those attached to their characters as u. aSr,ra) xuvijyso-i cov. * Xenophon. Cyneg. c. I. know that such Soraerville, The Transporting pleasures were by heav n ordain d Uiace. Wisdom s relief, and virtue s great reward. But it is time to cease both praise and reprehension : of the 1. The disastrous casualties that have befallen divers of the worshipful but rash disciples of Chiron and his compeers are recorded in terrorem by a Sicilian amateur of falconry. Will the timid courser venture to mount his " smart hack or Zetland shelty," after reading the following summary of these fatalities? " Meleager en La Fauconnerie perdit la vie, pour la victoire rapport^e sur le sanglier de Calidoine. Le bel Adonis ,]jgio„j. jjg jg fut tire par un sanglier. Acteon fut detorS ds ses proprcs chiens. Cephale y tua Alagoua. sa chere Procris, et Acaste en fut interdict, ayant occis le fils du Roy qui luy avoit est6 donn6 en cliarge, comme fut Brutus pour avoir tu6 son pere Sylvius par mesgarde. Un Empereur fut occis par la beste qu il poursuivoit. Un Roy en courant a la chasse se cassa le col en tombant de cheval. " The legitimacy of the inference drawn by Le Conseiller et Chambellan du Roy de Sicile is doubtful — " Que qui craindra ces dangereux eifectz qu il s adonne a la voUerie, ou il trouvera sans doubte plus grand plaisir. " The superior pleasure of the latter is as equivocal as its inferior danger; and pursued to excess, I should think, must share equality of peril and of blame.

28 PREFACE. latter I have been sparing ; of the former, perhaps, too liberal. Symmachus, " the wordy champion of expiring Paganism," checks his friend and correspondent Agorius in boasting too Symmachi much of his " nodosa retia vel pennarum formidines, et sagaces *^ canes, omnemque rem venaticam, meliorum oblitus ; " and suggests " quare cum scribis, memento facundiae tusB modum ponere. Rustica sunt et inculta, quae loqueris, ut venator esse credaris. " Wherefore, being myself addicted only to one branch of the craft, viz. that of " greyhound-hunting, " in the phrase of our " pedant king," Sir Thomas t^, nourishe up and fede More s poems. " Manhod. " ^ ^ greyhounde to tlie course — I am fearful of falling into the error of Agorius, and becoming obnoxious to the same rebuke. Enough, therefore : and now for an example. —Will the bookful recluse, the sedentary and learned oppositionist qualify the scorn vtdth which he views our varied course of occupation in the library and the field, if we Symmachi show him that our opinions and practice " liberalia studia Epist. L. V. 6. ^ sylvestri voluptate distinguere" are supported by a renowned example of antiquity ; and direct his attention to the latter and sequestered part of the hfe " secretum iter, et fallentis semita Xenophon. vitse" of the elder Xenophon, in contradiction of the refined Anali. L. . . . antipathies of Sallust ?—bid him contemplate the rival of Plato and Thucydides in his dehghtful retreat at Scillus, " under the protection of the temporal sovereignty of Lacedaemon, and the spiritual tutelage of Diana j diversifying the more refined pleasures of his studious hours with the active amusements of the field ; breaking his dogs, training his horses, and attending to the breed of stock ; registering the observations of his

PREFACE. 29 personal experience in these healthful pursuits with his own immortal pen; and affording an example to scholars in all ages, that they should not disdain to refresh their vigour, and renew their animation, by allowing the unharnessed faculties to recreate themselves freely in country sports, and exercise themselves agreeably in country business. " O would men stay aback frae courts, Burns, " The An please themselves wi countra sports, uogs. It wad for every ane be better, The laird, tlie tenant, an the cotter ! I wish it were in our power to enrol the name of the accomplished Athenian among the first patrons of our particular branch of field-sports ; but the greyhound was unknown to the son of Gryllus. We may, however, place the honour of the leash under the early patronage of his celebrated namesake : whose talents, as a military chief, were distinguished in the age in which he lived ; whose works, as a philosopher and historian, have been transmitted mth reputation to posterity, and continue to attract sufiicient attention from the literary world, to embolden us in directing the notice of such of our opponents as consider the courser in a state of degraded existence, to the younger Xenophon, in his twofold capacity of a man of literature, and a patron of the leash. And we may conclude from the latter having been considered worthy the illustration of his pen, that coursing was not then classed vdth the " servilia officia" of rural hfe. Before I proceed to the reasons which have induced me to lay before the public the following translation, I cannot resist availing myself of the opportunity, which a defence of the

30 PREFACE. courser s pursuit affords, of transcribing a spirited and highly poetical production of the late Mr. Barnard, of Brantinghamthorpe, 1 breathing the refined sentiments of a gifted scholar I. Of Mr. Barnard, who was accustomed to enliven the sedentary pleasures of his intellectual pursuits with the active and salutary recreation of coursing, and to shake off, in Horatian language, " inhumanie senium . . . Caraoense," in the company of liis greyhounds, on the wolds of Yorkshire, the reader must pardon me, if I speak with the deepest regret. He was indeed, like Maiimus the friend and correspondent of Symmachi Symmaclms, " inter sodales Apollinis ac Dianae, utriusque sectator," or in the appo^P" - ^ - ^- site words ofErcole Slrozzi, Cassaris Borgiae sylvfe scius, et scius artis Ducis Epice- Pierias, Phcebo et PlioebEs gratissimus »que. dium. But alas ! gifted as he was, far beyond the ordinary worshippers of the sylvan goddess, he hath " begun the travel of eternity," Soplioclis Tra- 04Priice tV navvaTiiTriv chin. V. 887. >-- . ooiev airafftcu. The periodical publications of the day have given to the world the mournful tribute of a scholar to his memory : and when the voice of affection hath sung " the deathless praise " of a departed son, that of friendship may be silent. But let it not be supposed that the learning and genius of this accomplished man were confined to the inferior and perishable subjects of the courser s pursuit. The powers of his talented mind were directed also to the high and heavenly callings of his profession ; and among other subjects, to the commemoration in verse and prose, of the saints and martyrs of the Protestant Church. In the words of the Nutricia of Politiano he was indeed Carm. quinque Felix ingenio, felix cui pectore tantas -niustr. Poetar. . "^ , jy_ Instaurare vices, cui fas tam magna capaci Alternare animo, et varias ita aectere curas ! His poetical version of the poems of the younger Flaminio, a celebrated Latinist of the sixteenth century, on which he was engaged till his fatal illness, and the publication of which be fondly anticipated, will add, I trust, to his posthumous fame. Pindar. Pyth. iv S oKiytf PpoTav rh Tepm/hi/ atS^eraf oStu SJ Kal wiTVfi X ^l^"^ airoTpSirCfi (irantpoi. tI Se TiS ; tI 8 oS Tis ; (TiciSj 6vttp &v6pa>iroi.

PREFACE. 31 and ardent courser, fired at the idea of his favourite sport, his greyhounds, and his mountain thoughts being hghtly or disdainfully received in the world s esteem ! MY GREYHOUNDS. Remember st thou my greyhounds true ? O er holt or hill there never flew, From leash or slip there never sprang, More fleet of foot or sure of fang. —Intiod. to MAnmiON Cant. ii. Oh ! dear is the naked wold to me, Where I move alone in my majesty ! Thyme and cistus kiss my feet. And spread around their incense sweet ; As the originator of the Courser s Stud Book, and the indefatigable compiler of its genealogical tables, (an attempt " mult^ deducere virg^," to derive " by trees of pedigrees," as Dryden says, the speed and shape of each celebrated descendant, in the greyhound kennel, from the recorded genealogies and performances of a farfamed ancestry,—ci7oSol 6^ iyimvro 5io rh (jivvau 4^ iyaBSiv,) the name of Mr. Barnard Platonis Menemust be recorded in the annals of coursing with lasting gratitude ; notwithstanding ^cenus. the prolegomena of a vicarious editor have occasioned the substitution of a second name on the title-page of the work, after the unexpected death of the original projector : oil yap oT5 apetfyfiivas iriAas Euripidis Hip"ASou, (jitios re \oMiov ;8\e jr«> ToSe. " But let us cease this querulous display of individual feeling. Many did not know him ; and those who did—his relatives—his friends and correspondents—have felt too much already. And the preface to so trivial a work as a Courser s Vade-Mecum is not a fit occasion for descanting on the high merits of a Christian scholar ; nor is lamentation over the dead a suitable prelude to the entertainment of ihe living. . . . ^^^. . „/ J. -1 vj- Ejusdem vs. Kttl x<"P /"• 1 "P "" ^^/"^ <l>SiTovs Oji^v, V15G. ovS" S/Jina xpatveiv Ba. vairlii. oiaai iKirnoais.

32 PREFACE. The laverock, spriaging from his bed, Pours royal greeting o er my head ; My gallant guards, my greyhounds tried, March in order by my side ; And every thing that s earthly bom. Wealth and pride and pomp, I scorn ; And chieBy thee Who lift st so high thy little horn. Philosophy ! Wilt thou say that life is short, That wisdom loves not hunter s sport. But virtue s golden fruitage rather Hopes in cloister d cells to gather ? Gallant greyhounds, tell her, here Trusty faith, and love sincere — Here do grace and zeal abide. And humbly keep their master s side. Bid her send whale er hath sold Human hearts—lust, power, and gold — A cursed train — And blush to find, that on the wold They bribe in vain. Then let her preach 1 the muse and I Will turn to Gracchus, Gaze, and Guy ; And give to worth its proper place. Though found in nature s lowliest race. And when we would be great or wise, Lo I o er our heads are smiling skie£ ; And thence we ll draw instruction true, That worldly wisdom never knew. Then let her argue as she will ! I ll wander with my greyhounds still (Halloo! Halloo!) And hunt foe health on the breeze-worn hill And wisdom too. But enough — Pindar. Pyth. « >! 5 ScrxoAos aviii. vs. 40. iia64ij,fv iraarav ixaKpayopiav \ipa Te Kal <l>diyiia Ti naKBaKif, fiii xdpos i\9iiv

PREFACE. 33 By my literary friends of the leash, who will alone probably condescend to open the following little treatise, it will be expected, after this too prolix defence of active field-amusements, and too selfish gratification of personal regret, that I should particularly state the reasons which have induced me to devote a few intervals of leisure to the version and illustration of an ancient courser, dignified by Mr. Gibbon with the title of Decline and Fall, Vol. VII. the eloquent and philosophic Arrian. " «i-42. A task so often thrown aside Marmion, InWlien leisure graver cares denied. trodaction to Canto IV, But an objection in limine must be first answered to a modern reader giving up any of the " horas vacivae" of his library even to the perusal of the cynegetical writers of antiquity, much less to their collation ; as treating forsooth of lowly animals, in their nature irrational and ferine. Should any one address me in the language of the old nurse to PhsBdra— rf KuvTiyefflav Kal <roi ixeKerris ; Euripidis Hippolyt. V. 226. or of Menedemus to Chremes — Tautumne est ab re tu^ otii tibi Terenlii HeauAliena ut cures, eacjue nihil qua3 ad te attinent ? "" act. ii. so. I would reply, that I do not consider these authors as affording unsuitable mental recreation to any literary gentleman, be his vocation what it may ; nor as rendering him amenable to the charge of Dr. Young of being "a polite apostate. " l-ove ofFame, 1. Many of the Greek and Latin classics having been edited by English Divines, the latter fell under the lash of Yonng in the memorable lines, When churchmen Scripture for the Classics quit, Polite apostates from God s grace to wit, &c.

34 PREFACE. Saint Chrysostom, the most eloquent of the Greek fathers of the church, was so enamoured of Aristophanes, notwithstanding the mahgnity of his satire, his occasional obscenities, and licentious morals, as " to wake with him at his studies, and to sleep with him under his pillow : " and it was never " objected either to his piety or his preaching, even in those times of pure zeal and primitive rehgion. " To close the ancient cynegetica against the modern student, merely because the lowly quadruped, that gives a name to such works, forms a part of their subject-matter, pregnant in every page with inmimerable other beauties, unconnected with the poor tyke, but scattered around him, would be (in an expressive simile of the Sir T. Elyot s author of " the Governour") like " prohibiting a man to B. 1. c. XIII. coiae into a fayre gardein, lest in gadring good and holsome herbes, he may happen to be stung with anetle "—" Semblaby yf a man doe rede wanton matter, myxt with wysdom, he putteth the worst under fote, and sorteth out the beste. " But the " Scriptores Rei Venaticse " are, of all others on the classic file, most chaste and pure of sentiment. The character bestowed by Price on Gratius in particular, is applicable to all collectively : their style, their arguiiient Is pleasant, rev rend, candid, innocent. Their eminent beauties in poetry and prose, their fine moral reflections and religious aspirations, will bear comparison with the brightest productions of Greek and Roman literature, and can only be lightly esteemed, because they are little known. If a candid and susceptible reader, competent to enjoy their beauties, shall, after a perusal, deem his hours of recreative

PREFACE. 35 study mispent, I will acknowledge that I have lost a few days of my life. But he, who pretends to decide their claims to attention, must have a mind sensible of the beauties of nature, and of didactic poetry and prose, devoted to the illustration of objects in rural life : and so far, I think, from deeming it beneath the notice of man to mark the hand of Providence among the inferior beings of Creation, and to contemplate the fixed regulations under which they support the economy of the animal world, he will allow that it is rather the entertainment of a correctly-constituted mind to admire the originals in the natural world, and the descriptions of their habits, and the modes of applying therri to the service and amusement of mankind in the works of learned men. With such sketches of animal life the cynegetical writers abound : and Oppian, more especially, with the poetic pen of a philosophic naturalist, deduces from the habits of irrational creatures precepts worthy of enrolment in the code of a moralist. For learn we might, if not too proud to stoop Cowper s Task, To quadruped instructors, many a good And useful quality, and virtue too. Rarely exemplified among ourselves. With such instructions, too, for rendering animal powers subservient to the recreation and support of mankind, the works of Xenophon, Arrian, and others De Re VenaticS, are plentifully stored. Let us hear then no more of the unworthiness of these authors or their subjects — ho hi ij,^ Iwyspettveiv irai^ixco; t^v •trsp) Aristot. de Part. Animal. Twv «Tiju. «Tsga)v i^aicov nrla-xsiiiv. I know the study of them to be ^- • <=• ^• eminently entertaining, and beUeve it to be equally innocent and instructive. Our higher and more grave studies are

36 PREFACE. pleasantly diversified by such intermixture, and the mind returns from its lighter to its more serious avocations with Lucian. Hist, renewed vigour. — toTj srep] Xoyoii; ecr Troudaxoirn/ ^yotijuai jrpoa-^xstv Verae, L. i. fiSTu Ty)V TToWijv T«jv (TTiovlaioregaiV avayvcoa-iv aveivct i n Tr,v havoiuv, x«i Ttpoi Toy iireiTX xaf/iaTOv axiaonoTsgav jiapourxeuaJ^eiv. The amusement derived from the Cynegeticus of Arrian, its terse, elegant language, and valuable information, has been my principal inducement to present it to the patrons of the leash in an English dress ; that those who might never have read the original, and might be unwilling, or, like Miramont Beaumont and in "the Elder Brother," (who could " speak no Greek," and Fletcher s The Elder Brother, held " the sound sufficient to confirm an honest man" without act II. sc. 1. a knowledge of its sense) unable to peruse it, might have an opportunity of becoming acquainted with the first author who had treated systematically of coursing. For " those, " says Christopher Wase in his preface to Gratius, " which are curious artisans, doe not content themselves that they have attained to so great perfection in their art, but are extremely pleased to look back and reflect upon the periods and steps whereby that art hath made its graduall progresse ; if perchance by comparing the former with the latter, even the present state of it may be advanced. " It was my wish that the copy should read Hke an original : and if I have failed in this respect, as I fear and feel I have, (for such an object is attended with far greater diflficulties of attainment than the inexperienced may suppose,) the failure must be attributed to a fearfulness of assuming too great a licence of translation, and departing too far from the letter of the original—a fear of paraphrasing instead of translating my author ; whose lively and spirited language indicates a power of

PREFACE. 37 description, and accurate knowledge of his subject, to which no translation could do justice, but by as faithful an adherence as the different idioms of different languages would allow. Under this impression, I have spared no pains in rendering the version with fidelity, deeming truth and perspicuity more essential than embellishment of language. For it has been well observed by Mr. Pope in his preface to the Iliad, that " it is the first grand duty of an interpreter to give his author entire and unmaimed. " And again, " it is certain no literal translation can be just to an excellent original in a superior language : but it is a great mistake to imagine (as many have done) that a rash paraphrase can make amends for this general defect ; which is no less in danger to lose the spirit of an ancient, by deviating into the modern manners of expression. If there be sometimes a darkness, there is often a light in antiquity, which nothing better preserves than a version almost literal. " If however this translation should be deemed too close and literal, and greater freedom of language desired in a little coursing manual ; I am willing to plead guilty to the fault. Still if its style and manner can neither be defended nor excused on the grounds stated, I trust they will be pardoned, because they are acknowledged. . Sunt delicta tanien qnibus ignovisse velimus. Horat. de Arte PoeticSl, vs. I am fully sensible that what I have done, might have been done by others far better. For though an occasional worshipper of the classic Minerva—" parens . . . . cultor et infrequens. " I know that there are, under the tutelage of Diana, many disciples who have been more richly endowed by 347.

38 PREFACE. the goddess of wisdom, and are better qualified for this undertaking. If, however, I have the good fortune to direct the attention of the more learned patrons of the leash to a manual scarce known among them, and to excite the same degree of interest in their minds, which its first perusal excited in my own ; I shall rest satisfied that the errors and deficiencies of this attempt will induce them to devote superior knowledge of the Greek language, and greater experience in coursing, to decorating the Athenian Sportsman with an English dress, more becoming the antiquity of his claim to distinction. Ovid. Trist. i. ^ veniam pro laude peto : laudatas abunde, Eleg. VI. Non fastiditus si tibi, lector, ero. Individuals possessed of great accuracy of knowledge in Greek literature, or what Schneider calls " axpl^eia. Graecae doctrinse, " united to extensive experience in field-sports, must necessarily be rare ; and till such shall undertake an improvement on the present version, it may pass its ordeal of utility with the public. Moderate love of the diversion, and moderate experience in the field or on the plain, I conceive to be as indispensable as an acquaintance with the language of the original text to the translator of a courser s enchiridion, or he Demetrii Con- will not WOrk in it COn amore, (Troo SriXov yap e! tt« tic hcec hjrl Tivi stantinop. Hie- ^ s / r i s = raccsophii i. 5ragaxoXou3^(rsi jrpayi/. ctTi, a^rixsivov toutq xaTopfltuflijiiai,) nor acquit himself to the satisfaction of his readers. To classic coursers I would particularly recommend the perusal and reperusal of the Greek original ; for I am confident that it is far more worthy of their attention than the English version ; which " is submitted to the correction and amendment of those worthy and well-kuovring gentlemen,"

PEEFACE. 39 under the hope that it may escape the severity of acrimonious criticism, as the work of a retired countryman, with no learned resources at hand, beyond a Hbrary moderately furnished with classic authorities, and writings illustrative of some departments of natural history. I wish I had been endowed with all the qualities essential to a more perfect performance. But such as it is, " I crave," with an old Chronicler, " that it may be taken in good part. I wishe I had bene furnished with so perfect instructions, and so many good gifts, that I might have pleased all kindes of men, but that same being so rare a thing in any one of the best, I beseech thee (gentle reader) not to looke for it in me the meanest. " Difficulty has occurred in rendering the ancient technical terms of a courser s manual, with any degree of elegance, in a modem tongue—" ornari res ipsa negat. " This has partly arisen — Propter egestatem lingute, et rerutn novitatem, Lucret. L. i, vs. 139. and partly from the corresponding English terms being debased into vulgarity by an usage too familiar to be pleasant to polite ears. Expressions of this kind in Arrian are occasioned by the accuracy which he affects in the most minute particulars connected with the subject of coursing, the shape of Celtic dogs, the discipline of the kennel and field, the breeding of whelps, &c. In relation to this and other defects, it is requested of all my brethren of the leash, in behalf of the oldest courser who has written on their manly diversion, that whatever may appear inelegant, dull, or uninteresting in the following little work, may be laid to the account of the translator : the errors of

40 PREFACE. whose style, and execution ought not to affect the intrinsic merits of the Cynegeticus. Many classical quotations have been introduced in the notes to elucidate and enliven the text ; some in their original language, others in the English tongue. Where the former appeared more illustrative and expressive, it has been retained. The latter has been occasionally substituted, where the passages selected conveyed information acceptable to an English courser, or a version of acknowledged merit faithfully conveyed the sense of the original. And in a few instances the original and translation have been introduced in juxta-position, to enable the reader to judge of their respective excellencies. To this too I have been ". moved," as Wase very nicely observes, by a wish that the quotations from the dead languages " may be understood with ease, and the delight of attending to the elegancies in them rather doubled than intermitted, by adjoyning a translation in equal consort:" "wherein," as he adds, " I shall have pleased either those that have an affection to see our language enriched with the wit of former ages ; or on the other side, even those men whose incUnations do rather move to look upon the native beauties of every piece. " The references to antiquity, which have imperceptibly inPlinii PrsBf. creascd to some extent,—" nee dubitamus multa esse, quee et Vespas. nos prseterierint, homines enim sumus, et occupati officiis," — have not been introduced for the sake of ostentatious display of knowledge of Greek and Latin literature, like those Yonng s Love Who, for renown, on scraps of learning dote, of Fame, Sat. i. 4 j . 1 • i . , . , & And tlunk they grow immortal as they quote.

PREFACE. 41 but that the classical courser might be induced " antiques exquirere fontes," T examine all, and bring from all away Pitt s Vida. Their varioas treasures as a lawful prey ; to compare the beauties and defects of the several authors who have treated on the same favourite subject ; and that the issue of the comparison might be the illustration of the Nicomedian courser. To the classic reader (" cui nihil neque non lectum est, Ausonius Sjm^ macuo. uriphus. neque non intellectum") no apology is necessary for the number of the extracts made from writers who must ever be prized, while pure and correct taste prevails : and to the courser, who with his academic gown has laid on the shelves of his library the authors of Greece and Rome, to be no more disturbed, like " the rude forefathers" of the rustic cemetery. Each in his narrow cell for ever laid ; and who "wonders" with Sir John Daw in "The Silent Ben Jonson s Epiccene, actii. Woman," that " those fellows have such credit with gentle- *"• *• menj" there is a summary power vested in himself, of reducing the number to the measure of his own taste and capacity. Such, however, not having been the fate of "the Churchill "The ^ Author. " crabbed authors" vrith myself, I confess that I have found it difficult to check my pen in transcribing apposite and explanatory quotations from these early friends. For in the language of old Gervase, " the minde being preoccupied and busied with a vertuous search, is ever ready to catch hold of whatsoever can adorne or illustrate the excellencie of the thing in which it is imployed. " F

42 PREFACE. This,- 1 trust, will be received as an apology ; and that the practical notes interspersed with the classical, will redeem my character as a moderate amateur of the sport, and give admission to this translation on the courser s table. Oppian. Cy- abrap 4yiiv 4pe<D rd t ^iiois Uov 6^0a\no7iri, jg° Bfjpnv ayKoMapov iTnareixoiv ifi\6xouriv iaaa t air avSpiiimv iSdriv, Tolaiv Tck fjJiiri\e, ai6\a TraVToiris eparris [ivffriipia rex^s. With the exception of Somerville, " who has shown, " as Dr. Johnson observes, " by the subjects which his poetry has adorned, that it is practicable to be at once a skilful sportsman and a man of letters," I have extracted very little from writers of the last century : but the natural historians, poetic and prosaic authors of the olden time, whose works are not of very common occurrence in our libraries, have afforded much information confirmatory of Arrian s opinions. These selections, as well as those from ancient English authors, incorporated with this preface, have been left in their original spelling, so hapSpecimens of pily expressed by Mr. Ellis as " that fortuitous combination of English Poets, Vol. 1. p. 11. letters, which the original transcribers or printers had assigned to them. " A knowledge of what others have written on a subject on which we ourselves are about to write appears indispensable. " Although I were very much experienced," says the translator of Gratius, " in any art, and were apt to conceive a good opinion of my own ability therein, yet being to publish a discourse concerning it, I was obliged to inform myself of what others had formerly proposed in the same matter, as far as may conveniently be attained. There are some who esteem it glory to be thought to have decUned any other helps but

PREFACE. 43 their own wit, which I should charge upon myself as negligence. " Far be such self-sufficiency from me ! I am ever glad to avail myself of the opinions and sentiments of others ; and in so doing, to give the merit of originality to its rightful owner, and not to a modern plagiarist. " Est enim benignum Piin. in Prsefat. Vespas. ut arbitror, et plenum ingenui pudoris, fateri per quos profeceris, non ut plerique ex iis, quos attigi, fecerunt. Scito enim conferentem autores me deprehendisse a juratissimis et proximis veteres transcriptos ad verbum, neque nominatos," &c. For out of the old fieldis, as men saitli, ^ ofFowls Cometh all this new com from year to year ; And out of olde bookis, in good faith, Cometh all this new science that men lere. Few will think me sparing of citation : but if there be such a one, and well disposed to a brother courser, " si bonus est, ^"^^^" 0/^"^. quae omisi, non obUta mihi, sed prseterita existimet. Dehinc qaaliscunque est, cogitet secum, quam multa de his non reperisset, si ipse quaesisset. Sciat enim me non omnibus erutis usum ;" I hope he vyill not add with Ausonius, " et quibusdam oblatis abusum. " Should curiosity induce any one to inquire who is the translator of this treatise, let it suffice, that he is an humble individual of retired habits, too utterly unknown to the world to expect that any additional interest will be imparted to his labours by the pubhcation of the name of their author : —that he is in the enjoyment of the ease and freedom of a private scene, where, in the felicitous language of Sir W, Temple, " a man may go his own way and his own pace :"—that his o^^^^,^ ^"j°;°f

44 PREFACE. pursuits at home and abroad are rationally diversified. " For honest pleasures," like Brathwait s gentleman, " he is neither so Stoicall as wholly to contemne them, nor so Epicureall as too sensually to affect them. " " There is no delight on mountaine, vale, coppice, or river, vehereof he makes not an usefuU and contemplative pleasure j" Darcius Venu- At sjlvse gelidique specus, cava lustra feraram, ^"" ^" Buraque, et aican^ labentia flumina valle Sunt aaimo ! But his " hour-beguiling pastime," when not occupied in any Plin. Panegjr. of the more important duties of life, " si quand6 cum influenTrajan. 81. tibus negotiis paria fecit, instar refectionis," is that of a theoretical and practical courser — desirous of acquiring, in the sedentary retirement of his library, the science of active enjoyment in the field; and of elucidating the mysteries of the leash, and the pertinent anecdotes of animal biography, by collecting in one point of view the scattered glimmerings of classical antiquity, and the illustrations of more modem days, relative to an elegant and manly diversion : —directing the whole under the guidance of experience, and the name of the father of the leash, to the advancement of human recreation. Terent Andr Quod plerique omnes faciunt adolescentuli, act. I, sc. 1. 28, Ut animum ad aliquod studium adjungant, ant equos Alere, aut canes ad venandum, aat ad philosopbos : Hcrum ille nihil egregie praeter csstera Studebat, et tamen omnia haec mediocriter. The translator has his hack, his greyhound, and his slipper, (xuvaytoyof,) participating of the unimportant character of their master, and equally devoid of interest in the eyes of the public.

PREFACE. 45 All, therefore, are consigned to the same fate, and merged in one common namelessness ; [spite of the example of Hippamon of old, in the metrical. commemoration of his sporting establishment: AvSpl u. h ImrduuD Svou ?,v, Xmrif 5^ n6Sapyos, ^P""^ Pollucis , , ,„ ,„ , , Onomaaticoii. Kai Kwl Mfiapyos, Kai VfpdirovTi Ba/3t)s. With regard to the Appendix, Si quis tamen lieec quoque, si quia CaptUB amore leget, » I have only a few remarks to make. To many, though mere sciolists in natural history, it must have appeared, during their progress in classical reading, that much ignorance of the varieties of the canine race is shown by annotators. With the gentlemen ^ societate Jesu, and others who have favoured us with their expositions of the ancients, there is too great an inclination to generalize both as to the names and properties of the canine tribe. The " veloces Spartae catuli" ^ are all " levriers," though there was not, according to Arrian, (and he is supported by Blumenbach,) a greyhound in the whole of ancient Greece : and certainly as " the babbling echo 1. Tliese tenns are also misapplied in the Cynegeticon of the poet of Barga, and in the Album Dianas Lepoiicida of Savary of Caen. The latter, speaking of Spain and Italy, says — Non alit in leporem oatulos nisi forte Lacones Lib, i. p. 5. Hesperia, &c. and of the Italians and their chase he writes, £t lepori indicunt solo Lacedsmone belliun. Lib. i< p. 6,

46 PKEFACE. Macbeth, act III. so. I. Gratii Cyneg. 154. mocked them" in their quick-scented pursuit of the Laconian quarry, they could be no more entitled to the appellation, than any sharp-nosed mongrel, bred in modern days, between a sagacious yelping hound, and a prick-eared shepherd s cur. Upon the same principle of generalization, all truculent Molossi, C. Custodes, Pecuarii, &c. are by these worthies at once dismissed as GaUicfe " dogues," Anglic^ " mastiffs," without an attempt to particularize their respective attributes in warfare, or the chase, or the economy of rural life. Hounds, and greyhounds, mongrels, spaniels, curs, Sboughs, water-rugs, and demi-wolves, are cleped All by the name of dogs ; the valued file Distinguishes the swift, the slow, the subtle, The housekeeper, the hunter, every one According to the gift which bounteous nature Hath in him closed ; whereby he does receive Particular addition, from the bill That writes them all alike. This confusion of nomenclature might pass at school, but not longer. Subsequent experience, and the reflection of maturer years would direct the attention of many literary ruralists to the occasional correction of errors in the canine vocabulary. Such at least has been the case with the writer of these pages ; and he conceives that errors, apparent to him, must have been manifest to others. Nor is a misapprehension of some of the names and qualities of the individuals of this multifarious genus (Mille canum patriae, ductique ab origine mores Cuique su&) to be wondered at in scholiasts and commentators ; when we consider their monkish habits of indolent seclusion, and how unfit and unwilling they were to ascertain by actual expe

PREFACE. 47 riment, whether Pliny was correct in affirming that Minerva was as fond of traversing the hills as Diana. " These bookish A New Discourse of a Stale fellowes," in the words of Sir John Harrington, " could judge Subject,&c. of no sports, but within the verge of the fair fields of Helicon, Pindus, and Parnassus. " Their practice in the field was not commensurate with their scholastic knowledge. Very few carried their note-books, like the learned and indefatigable Vlitius to the covert side, and examined the difficulties of rural poetry, and obscure allusions to canine instinct in the field of experience. And unless they did so, they had little chance of becoming acquainted with the sylvan goddess, who tells us in her petition to her sire, that she rarely descends from her mountain haunts into the cities of men ; airapvhv yap ST"Ai>Teius HuTTV KdreuTiV. Callimacli. H. Wherever the different sporting dogs of antiquity are alluded to, or mentioned by name in the Cynegeticus of Arrian, or the classical works to which I have had occasion to refer in illustration of it, I have endeavoured to clear up some of the obscurity, in which they were enveloped; by classifying varieties, and in a few cases even individuals, and comparing ancient types with modern representatives. This I have attempted more especially in relation to the ancient British dogs, and the Celtic greyhound (the subject of Arrian s Treatise), as being of paramount interest to the British courser. , , » ~ „ \ I 1! Theocrili IHvll. Si Ttinroi, oXov towo flfoi irotnaav Stoktes ^^^,_ ^^^ ^gBilpiov i. v6pilntouri /ler^iUfieraf 6s imfajBiS. The observations and extracts on these points, more trite

48 PEEFACE. probably than recondite, have been thrown together in an appendix, which I hope may be found amusing to any Uterary sportsman who may condescend to peruse them. liA CHA. USSB .



/ ikY/BrJ)« ^ ^Onjtrjjj^Tc-TrnTTTi - " BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE CYNEGETICUS, WORK ON COURSING. The Cynegeticus was originally written by Arrian, in imitation of Xenophon s Treatise de Venatione, to supply the lacunae of that work in the particular department of Coursing. The manuscript seems to have been neglected in the Vatican library for several years after it had been first discovered, in consequence of its bearing the name of Xenophon : for the persons who accidentally met with it, not being aware of Arrian s assumption of that title, took no pains to examine it, under an impression that it was the edited Cynegeticus of the elder Xenophon, and not a new and unknown treatise on a different branch of the same subject, by an author of the same assumed name, a pseudo-Xenophon. We are told by Mausacus that Rigaltius intended to have edited it with the Scriptores de Re Accipitraria et de CurS, Canum, (the first edition of which he published in 1612, with a forged epistle in Castilian and Latin from Aquila Symmachus and Theodotion to a Ptolemy, King of Egypt,) but the

52 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE t printers refused their consent, unless he added a Latin translation; a desideratum which was afterwards supplied by Holstein in the first edition. Henry Stephens, however, had previously perused the unpublished treatise, and given to the world, in his Schediasmata, some observations on different passages. Holstein, the first editor, was a celebrated scholar of his day, and is commemorated in the Sept. lUustr. Vir. Poemata as — Poem. Ferdin. Graias Latiaeque Minervse Lib. Baron de Artibus, Eois notus et Hesperiis. Furstenbeig. His edition issued from the Paris press of Sebastian and Gabriel Cramoisy in the year 1644. The Greek text, and version attached to it, were amended by Blancard in his Amsterdam edition of 1683; which contains also the minor works of Arrian, and the pertinent schediasmata of Henry Stephens above mentioned. My library affords no editions but the above two, and the accurate reprint of Schneider by the University of Oxford in 1817. The last is certainly the best edition of the Cynegeticus of Arrian which I have seen. The Clarendon press also published in the same volume the Cynegeticus of the elder Xenophon, and his Opuscula Politica; the same collection of the minor works as Zeune comprehended in one volume, printed at Leipsic, 1778. M. Gail is reported to have published a French translation of the work, with critical notes and dissertations, at Paris, in 1801 : but, notwithstanding repeated applications to the Parisian booksellers, I have not been able to procure a copy. Equally unsuccessful have been my endeavours to obtain from the same source Defermat s version, published by Hortemels of Paris, in 1690. The latter, however, in consequence of the literary character given of its author by Belin de Ballu, in his prolegomena to Oppian, I do not much regret. It accompa

or THE CYNiiGETICUS. 53 nied a French version of the two last books of the Cynegetics of the Cihcian poet, which are stated to abound in errors of translation, and to be performed in a tedious and barbarous style by Defermat, eminent as a mathematician, but of moderate attainment in Greek literature. The present version was completed before I was aware of any prior attempt to translate the Cynegeticus into English : the first notice of which, in the partial labours of Mr. Blane, was derived from Schneider s annotations. I do not believe any other to exist in the English language, vidth the exception of such fragments of the treatise as may have been occasionally made to speak English, on the emergency of a periodical publication needing an article on Coursing ; or a literary sportsman wishing to enliven his communications by a reference to the manual, and quoting it in his vernacular tongue. Mr. Blane s attempt did not extend apparently to the whole treatise. It is in parts inaccurately executed, and omits numerous sentences, where he professes to translate ; and whole chapters in sequence, where we can see no reason for omission. The fourth, and ten following chapters to the fourteenth inclusive, and the twenty-third and twelve following chapters to the thirty-fifth inclusive, are entirely omitted by this capricious translator. Since, then, in a work consisting of only thirty-five chapters, he has, without assigning any cause, passed over twenty-four unnoticed, nearly all of them important to practical coursers, some evincing the kindly feelings of their author, (as for instance, the one containing the affectionate history of his beloved dog Homie,) and others most honourable to his humanity, and confirmative of the purity of his religious faith, operative in a heathen breast, (as the two closing chapters, showing, amidst much fabulous allusion, his unreserved acknowledgment of human def)endence on divine aid, and the certainty of evil and misfortune being consequent on irreligion and moral transgression,) I hope a complete translation of this ancient courser s enchiridion will not be considered an useless undertaking.

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